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This paper gives an overview of the current status of organic farming research in the Netherlands. In 2001, the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality LNV produced its policy on organic agriculture, aiming at a market oriented organic production. The main objective presented in this policy document is that 10 % of the total cultivated agricultural area will be under organic farming in the Netherlands by the year 2010. One of the policy instruments to be applied to reach this objective is research on organic production. This policy resulted in an increase in organic farming research funding by the Ministry from 3 million Euro in 1999 to over 10 million Euro in 2003. In 2004, this policy on organic agriculture was evaluated. The evaluation included results of research and knowledge efforts and a new policy document for the pe...
The dairy sector is the largest organic sector in the Netherlands. Not only cows, but also goats and sheep are kept to produce milk and a variety of cheeses. Although a significant share of total organic dairy production is exported, domestic consumers are continuing to buy more and more Dutch organic dairy. To facilitate organic dairy farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic dairy production. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.
The Organic Revision project was funded by the EU with the aim of supporting the further development of the EU Regulation 2092/91 on organic production. As part of the project focus groups were run in five European countries on value concepts of organic producers and other stakeholders, during 2004-2005. The project aims to provide an overview of values held among organic stakeholders, and of similarities and differences among the various national and private organic standards. In the Netherlands four focus groups were held, one pre-test with researchers, and three groups with established organic producers both of livestock and horticulture. It was not possible to recruit any newly converted producers to a meeting in the Netherlands. The following conclusions were reached: Summarising the values in the words of the participants of th...
Although Ghanaians have formed a substantial immigrant community in the Netherlands for decades, the relationship between the Dutch State and the Ghanaian community remains tense. Not only is Ghanaian life in the Netherlands generally marked by a high level of suspicion with regard to the Dutch State, but the community itself has long taken over certain functions that are otherwise provided by the State. This chapter explores the dimensions of this tense relationship. It pays specific attention to the many Ghanaian churches that have emerged in the Netherlands and the role they play in the creation of a notion of self-reliance and self-esteem. There is some evidence to suggest that religious structures in Ghana have a history of antagonism with regard to State policies. This feature seems to have been carried over into the Netherlands....
Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpower. The Africans counted as part of the European contingent of the army. After expiry of their contracts, some Africans returned to the Gold Coast, while others opted to settle in the East Indies. They became the founding fathers of the Indo-African communities in the Javanese towns of Purworedjo, Semarang, Salatiga and Solo. On Java, the African soldiers and their descendants became known as 'Belanda Hitam' - black Dutchmen. This chapter outlines the background to the recruitment of Africans for the Dutch colonial army and describes three p...
An impressive set of welfare state arrangements has kept ethnic segregation and concentration in Dutch cities to a relatively low level. Indices of segregation have also been relatively stable over the last two decades. This does not mean, however, that concentrations of ethnic minority groups are stable. Some types of neighbourhoods seem to have become less important as housing areas for ethnic minority groups, while others are becoming their main housing areas, especially for Turks and Moroccans. While in some cities this shifting pattern has already been characteristic for more than a decade, in other cities it is of more recent origin. We describe these shifting patterns of ethnic minority groups in the largest cities in the Netherlands (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht). We then focus on the policy response to these pat...
Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we review: 1) the development of the methodology; 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands’ sediments; and 3) geological applications of the method in the Netherlands. Our review shows that optically stimulated luminescence dating of quartz grains using the single aliquot regenerative dose method yields results in agreement with independent age control for deposits ranging in age from a few years up to 125 ka. Optical dating of quartz has successfully been applied to sediments from a wide range of depositional environments such as coastal dunes, cover sands, fluvial channel deposits, colluvial deposits and fimic soils. These results demonstra...
Edward Said's death was front-page news in the Netherlands and a Dutch journalist's interview with him in 1999 was broadcast on national television. This is the kind of attention given only to intellectuals of the stature of Sartre or Foucault. When he saw the interview on television, Pierre Audi, the artistic director of The Netherlands Opera, said that he had felt touched as though by the Allegro of Beethoven's great symphonies.
Religion and class have been the major factors structuring party choice in the Netherlands until the mid-1960s. Since then a process of dealignment has set in. According to some the old bonds were never replaced. Others claim the emergence of new cleavages which would have supplemented or possibly even replaced the former ones. Most frequently mentioned are left-right ideology and (post)-materialist value orientations. In this article the current structure of electoral alignments in the Netherlands is analysed. Left-right turns out to be the most important determinant of party choice. Religion and class are still correlated with choice, but they exert no strong direct causal influence. Post-materialist orientations are of negligible importance in a causal model of party choice.
Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the nationwide programme has been modernized further and now involves a systematic, competency-based education with structural training courses, formalized assessment and room for reflection by residents under the supervision of surgical teaching groups. To this end, a uniform web-based digital portfolio is being introduced to facilitate monitoring of the individual resident’s progress. Though requiring inspirational leadership, commitment, and determination, this modernization has sparked enthusiasm among trainees and teachers.
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