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abstractThe article discusses marketing developments in the Netherlands. The author describes the evolution of marketing in the country from the traditional institutions such as wholesaling, retailing, and auctions, etc. to the nonprofit sectors. Marketing in the country has been described in three phases: pioneering phase, expansion, and stabilization. With this in mind, the author gives an overview of the marketing literature that has surface from this evolution. He mentions the types of publications and academic institutions that have contributed to the literature. Furthermore, he looks at the different subjects in marketing that the literature has researched.text
[Excerpt] Like other Western European countries, the Netherlands has adapted and reformed its social security system since the 1980s. As international competition intensifies, a significant share of industrial production has moved to low-wage countries. The high rate of unemployment that ensued caused a dramatic increase in claims for incapacity benefits and later unemployment benefits. Government spending on social security skyrocketed as a result. Consecutive governments wanted to adapt the system to the trends towards flexibility and individualisation of labour market relations. Their efforts culminated in a complete overhaul of the system in 1987. Government spending on social security decreased after the system was reformed, but the number of benefit claimants continued to rise. By the end of the 1980s, the proportion of non-activ...
Introduction While the world moves towards modern renewable energy sources, these sources are not always available which makes them unreliable. At the same time, problems of balancing the daily peak-demand is still performed with expensive fossil fueled units. Sitting perfectly in between supply and demand is a solution with the potential of solving both problems: energy storage. Analysis The available large-scale energy storage technologies are analyzed and specifically their suitability for the Netherlands. The choice has fallen on Pumped Hydropower Storage (PHS); a proven technology. The exclusivity of hydropower for elevated countries is challenged with alternatives for PHS in the Netherlands. These alternatives are grouped according to their favor for either surface size with Storage Islands, or towards the depth with Undergroun...
BACKGROUND: Reports on increasing hypospadias trends are based on birth defect registries, which are prone to inaccuracy. We assessed the prevalence of hypospadias precisely, by prospective examination of all newborns in Rotterdam over a 2-year period. METHODS: A total of 7292 consecutive male births were examined for the presence of hypospadias, classified by severity. RESULTS: The frequency of hypospadias in newborn boys was 0.73% (53/7292). The rate among live births was 38 per 10 000, which is 6 times the previously reported rate for the Southwestern Netherlands (6.2) (P < 0.0001). This registry excludes glandular hypospadias. Without glandular cases, our rate is 26 per 10 000, which is still 4-fold higher (P < 0.0001). The ratio of minor to major hypospadias was 0.3...
abstractBACKGROUND: Reports on increasing hypospadias trends are based on birth defect registries, which are prone to inaccuracy. We assessed the prevalence of hypospadias precisely, by prospective examination of all newborns in Rotterdam over a 2-year period. METHODS: A total of 7292 consecutive male births were examined for the presence of hypospadias, classified by severity. RESULTS: The frequency of hypospadias in newborn boys was 0.73% (53/7292). The rate among live births was 38 per 10 000, which is 6 times the previously reported rate for the Southwestern Netherlands (6.2) (P < 0.0001). This registry excludes glandular hypospadias. Without glandular cases, our rate is 26 per 10 000, which is still 4-fold higher (P < 0.0001). The ratio of minor to major hypospadias ...
In 2009, the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps started merging its two SOF units into one The Netherlands Maritime Special Operation Forces (NL MARSOF). This newly formed unit is envisioned as a unique mixture of traditional maritime special operations and national counter-terrorism capabilities. Even though the creation of NL MARSOF marks significant progress in the professionalization of Dutch maritime SOF, new challenges in determining its strategic utility and cultural differences between NL MARSOFs sub-units hamper its optimal development and effectiveness. Based on an organizational model of unit culture and a theoretical framework based on SOFs strategic utility, this research explored how NL MARSOF can better unify its culture and clarify its strategic utility. Governing document analysis, survey research, and interviews with key ...
abstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th percentile of Tanner breast stage 2 was 10.7 y, and 50% of the boys had reached a testicular volume of 4 mL at 11.5 y of age. Median age at menarche was 13.15 y. The median age at which the various stages of pubertal development were observed has stabilized since 1980. The increase of the age at stage G2 between 1965 and 1997 is probably owing to different interpretations of its definition. The current age limits for the definition of precocious are close to the third percentile of these references. A high ...
We investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th percentile of Tanner breast stage 2 was 10.7 y, and 50% of the boys had reached a testicular volume of 4 mL at 11.5 y of age. Median age at menarche was 13.15 y. The median age at which the various stages of pubertal development were observed has stabilized since 1980. The increase of the age at stage G2 between 1965 and 1997 is probably owing to different interpretations of its definition. The current age limits for the definition of precocious are close to the third percentile of these references. A high agreemen...
There are over 1 million organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Organic eggs are in high demand on the domestic market. Dutch organic poultry meat has a small but growing market share. To facilitate organic poultry farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic poultry meat and egg production. Hot topics are the protein content of poultry feed, organic rearing and animal health. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.
This article describes the origins, the development as well as the current situation of African Studies in the Netherlands. Despite the interesting though limited corpus of travel writing, colonial ethnography, and missionary testimony in Dutch, the scholarly study of Africa really took off only in the post-1945 period. Several chairs in African studies/anthropology were established at some universities (in Amsterdam, Leiden and Utrecht), and a growing interest in field research in Africa emerged. After World War Two a group of business people founded the Africa Institute in Rotterdam to explore the economic opportunities in Africa, an area of expected new markets. In fact, this institute had two legs. One was the business institute, the other a documentation centre established in Leiden which grew into a full-fleged interuniversity re...
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