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abstractImmediately after the Liberation the Netherlands were faced with a severe shortage of all essential goods, particularly in the Western part of the country, where the period of famine had led to a complete exhaustion of all stocks, and where the Germans had deliberately destroyed the railway system. At that time there was no alternative to a policy of rigorous planning, approaching that of a war economy. After the worst damage had been repaired and the shortages partially alleviated, it became apparent that the pent-up demand (backed by abundant liquid reserves), was so much larger than production and imports together, that an allocation and rationing system would be necessary to prevent inflation. It was not a matter of principle, but the compelling nature of the circumstances which led to the continuation of a policy of detail...
Until recently, autochthonous infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum were not thought to be found in the Netherlands, but in the past year four dogs have been diagnosed with angiostrongylosis. Three of them had never been abroad. These cases gave rise to further research in order to increase the plausibility of endemic foci of A. vasorum in the Netherlands. Between January 2008 and April 2008 485 faecal samples from dogs were collected by veterinarians, hunting associations and kennel clubs. First-stage larvae of A. vasorum were to be recovered by the Baermann technique. As a result larvae were identified in faecal samples from four dogs. Three of those had never been outside the Dutch borders. Although an endemic focus can’t be defined by these results, A. vasorum should now be considered endemic to the Netherlands.
The arable farming and field vegetable cultivation sector is a significant part of the organic agricultural sector in the Netherlands. The sector produces not only vegetables for human consumption, but also organic animal feed such as maize an cereals. To facilitate organic farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety or research aimed specifically at organic arable farming and field vegetable production. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.
The organic sector in the Netherlands is varied and vibrant. To be able to adequately respond to market trens, opportunities and threats, farmers and their partners in the production chains need high quality information about consumption and trends. To facilitate organic farmers and producers, Wageningen UR and the Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic markets and production chains. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.
The total area occupied in the Netherlands by organic horticulture under glass is growing steadily. Several growers convert to this form of horticulture every year and some existing organic growers are expanding their businesses. However, increasing imports from Spain and other south European countries, together with rising costs, means less room for economic development within this sector. The report contains sector information, sector aspirations and current research projects.
Apples and pears are the most important organic fruit crops in the Netherlands. Smaller crops, such as berries and grapes for wine production are up and coming. Around 50% of the total Dutch organic fruit production is exported. To be able to facilitate organic fruit growers, Wageningen UR and the Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic fruit production. Hot topics are the prevention and control of scab and black rot and the development of new varieties. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.
abstract__Abstract__ In 1892, Arnold Pick described the first patients with a clinical syndrome that is currently named frontotemporal dementia (FTD). He emphasised the focal aspect of cortical atrophy in his patients, to this day the hallmark of this disorder. Following a detailed description of the neuropathological changes by Alois Alzheimer in 1911, including the argyrophilic neuronal inclusions later known as Pick bodies, the term Pick’s disease was introduced in 1926. Over the years, many different names have been used to describe this clinical and pathological entity: frontal lobe dementia, dementia of non-Alzheimer type, dementia of frontal lobe type, Pick’s disease, and others. In 1994, the term FTD was introduced to describe the clinical syndrome associated with focal frontotemporal degeneration, with semantic dem...
We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attributes were derived from ~350,000 borehole descriptions. Overburdens and intercalations of cohesive or otherwise non-dredgeable materials were taken into account to define geologically exploitable aggregates within the total stock. We arrive at about 520 · 109 m3 of aggregates occurring in the depth range investigated. Some 50% of this amount is considered geologically exploitable and about 25% would in principle (but largely not in reality) be accessible. Most aggregates resources (~98%) are coarse sand, which is processed for use in concrete, m...
Clay is a common lithology in the Dutch shallow subsurface. It is used in earth constructions such as dikes, and as raw material for the fabricationof bricks, roof tiles etc. We present a new national assessment of Dutch clay resources, as part of a project that provides mineral-occurrenceinformation for land-use planning purposes. The assessment is based on a 3D geological model, which consists of voxel cells with lithologicalcomposition as primary attribute, and has been obtained by interpolating data of more than 380,000 digital borehole descriptions. Theoccurrence of shell material and the extent to which clay is peaty were used as quality attributes, enabling us to tentatively distinguish betweenclay that is potentially suitable as ceramic material, and clay that is not.As clay is extracted using dry (i.e. non-dredging) techniques...
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