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Part of the debate on cost containment in health care systems can be characterized as applied political philosophy. Three philosophical directions can be traced. (1) Norman Daniels and Ronald Dworkin advocate a health care distributional system based on a Rawls' A Theory of Justice. (2) Tristram Engelhardt defends a market based approach, reminiscent of Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia. (3) Daniel Callahan advocates a communitarian strategy which resembles the work of Christopher Lasch and Robert Bellah. In the first part of this article these three strategies will be discussed. Occasionally health care philosophers also refer to Michael Walzer's Spheres of Justice. However, no one has undertaken the task to design a health care distributional system style Michael Walzer. According to the author this is to be regretted. Walzer argue...
Currently no medical informatics curriculum is required at US medical schools. In 1998 the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP) identified topics for inclusion in medical school curriculum, categorized in five domains: Life-Long Learner, Clinician, Educator/Communicator, Researcher, and Manager. Here we present the results of a web-based survey of 1st and 2nd year medical students at Case Western Reserve University (Case). The survey determined the perceived skills of 1st and 2nd year students in the five domains of medical informatics as defined by the AAMC.
Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system.
MOST MEMBERS OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION feel stressed at some time. If stress is ongoing, impairment may occur (defined as being unable to safely or reliably perform one’s role). A continuum appears to exist between functioning well, being distressed and becoming impaired, with external (environment-related) and internal (personalrelated) stressors determining where an individual will lie on the continuum. We are conducting a study which aims to determine whether distress in new medical graduates can be predicted before the graduates become impaired and unable to safely or reliably perform their role. Study commencement Our study, which commenced in 1997, initially looked at predictors for “troubled” and “troublesome” interns. Hospital- based focus groups comprising interns (postgraduate Year 1), resident medical officers (postgraduate ...
Introduction: In the complex setting of a medical school it becomes essential to utilize an approach to teaching and learning that is best suited to the needs of the students. In developing countries like India, where there is an exponential increase of institutions catering to medical students, it becomes a challenge to teach to large number of students per class. Hence, research is needed to identify the needs of students in relation to their day to day learning activities. Objectives: To understand the preferences and perception of medical students about the current methods of teaching, aids used for teaching and also identify barriers in learning as perceived by the students. Method: A Cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore during May 2012. Study participants included 2nd and 3rd year medical s...
Introduction: Information literacy(IL) is a set of abilities requiring individuals to identify when information is needed and have the competency to locate, evaluate, and use efficiently the required information. The very aim of this study is to recognize to what extend the medical and paramedical post graduate students and faculty members are able to use the variety of information resources. The study was done in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from October to December 2012. Methods and Materials: This study used the descriptive analytical method. The participants of this study were 80 faculty members and 80 postgraduate medical and paramedical students who referred to central library of university within the first two weeks of October (beginning of school year) for information seeking. All of participants in the study we...
Address to mark the opening of the Wits University Medical School's Steve Biko Centre for Boiethics.
A current problem in practice in the medical industry is the underreporting of medical errors. Accordingly, there is no way of knowing whether the harm from medical errors is accurately calculated. Rates of error reporting in high reliability organizations (HROs) exceed those in other industries, including health care. HROs and error reporting have traditionally been examined through a lens of organizational culture and but not from the perspective of individual variations. To study the effect of individual variations on medial error reporting, we build on existing social cognitive theory, specifically adapting Albert Bandura’s Triadic Reciprocality Model. The adapted model explores the interaction of personal cognitive factors influenced by...
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examining the human and financial costs to the healthcare system caused by research and development. It "discusses possibilities for and obstacles to assessing the social impacts of new medical technologies during the stages of research and development that precede their wiespread acceptance" (p. 3).
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