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Software traceability is central to medical device software develop-ment and essential for regulatory approval. In order to comply with the regulatory requirements of the medical device industry it is essential to have clear linkages and traceability from requirements - including risks - through the different stages of the software development and maintenance lifecycles. The regulatory bodies request that medical device software development organizations clearly demon-strate how they follow a software development lifecycle without mandating a par-ticular lifecycle. However, due to the traceability requirements of the industry most medical device companies adopt the V-model. Within this chapter we will discuss the importance of traceability to medical device software development, the current state of practice within the industry in rela...
Studies before and since the 1999 Institute of Medicine report have noted the limitations of using medical record reporting for reliably quantifying and understanding medical error. Quantitative macro analyses of large datasets should be supplemented by small-scale qualitative studies to provide insight into micro-level daily events in clinical and hospital practice that contribute to errors and adverse events and how they are reported. Design : The study design involved semistructured face-to-face interviews with residents about the medical errors in which they recently had been involved and included questions regarding how those errors were acknowledged. Objective : This paper reports the ways in which medical error is or is not reported and residents' responses to a perceived medical error. Participants : Twenty-six residents were r...
We discuss current trends in the development and use of high-confidence medical cyber physical systems (MCPS). These trends, including increased reliance on software to deliver new functionality, wider use of network connectivity in MCPS, and demand for continuous patient monitoring, bring new challenges into the process of MCPS development and at the same time create new opportunities for research and development.
Medical expenditure risk can pose a major threat to living standards. We derive decomposable measures of catastrophic medical expenditure risk from reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. We propose a quantile regression based method of estimating risk exposure from cross-section data containing information on the means of financing health payments. We estimate medical expenditure risk in seven Asian countries and find it is highest in Laos and China, and is lowest in Malaysia. Exposure to risk is generally higher for households that have less recourse to self-insurance, lower incomes, wealth and education, and suffer from chronic illness.
The last 10 years have presented the Marine Corps with the challenge of continuous deployments to hostile environments at an unprecedented rate. This study examines the correlation between deployment tempo and medical separation rates for Marines who have shown an intention to remain in the Service by reenlisting past their first term. It does so by comparing the probability of medical separation for careerists relative to other causes of separation. The data comes from the Marine Corps Total Data Force Warehouse. Interaction effects were measured using a Linear Probability Model and probit estimations. Key variables in my study are gender, a 9/11 partition, and the number of deployments. Medical separations are defined as acute sources, such as loss of limb, degenerative sources such as back pain and other long-term ailments, and medi...
abstractMedical expenditure risk can pose a major threat to living standards. We derive decomposable measures of catastrophic medical expenditure risk from reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. We propose a quantile regression based method of estimating risk exposure from cross-section data containing information on the means of financing health payments. We estimate medical expenditure risk in seven Asian countries and find it is highest in Laos and China, and is lowest in Malaysia. Exposure to risk is generally higher for households that have less recourse to self-insurance, lower incomes, wealth and education, and suffer from chronic illness. text
The therapeutic privilege is a defence in terms of which a doctor may withhold information from a patient if disclosure of such information could harm the patient. This study explores the defence of therapeutic privilege and provides a critical evaluation. A comparative investigation is undertaken, while arguments springing from a variety of disciplines are also incorporated. A number of submissions are made for limiting the ambit of the defence. The main submission is that the therapeutic privilege should comply with all the requirements of the defence of necessity. In addition, it should contain some of the safeguards afforded to the patient by the requirements of the defence of negotiorum gestio so that therapeutic privilege is out of the question if medical treatment is administered against the patient's will, or the doctor has rea...
As editor the Medical Humanities section, Shapiro provides an introduction and discusses how the articles in this section of the journal use reflective writing in medical education contexts to explore the perspectives and priorities of a range of others - patients, family members, other health care professionals - involved in the clinical encounter.
With the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine in 1936 need for a new building became apparent. Subsequently, the University undertook construction of the Medical School at Herston and this building was officially opened by Premier William Forgan Smith in August, 1939
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