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Previous research has suggested that communication and especially promises increase cooperation in laboratory experiments. This has been taken as evidence for internal motivations such as guilt aversion or preference for promise keeping. The original goal of this paper was to examine promises under a double blind payoff procedure to test the alternative explanation that promise keeping was due to external influence and reputational concerns. We find no evidence that communication increases the overall level of cooperation in our double blind experiment. However, our results are due in part to the high level of cooperation that we observe, leading us to conduct additional single blind conditions. Ultimately, we find no evidence that communication or payoff procedures impact aggregate cooperation.
The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measured from the 1989-2000 International Crime Victims Surveys. I find that an increase in the share of young people born to a teen mother increases the assault rate. The type of assault affected is perpetrated by unarmed lone assailants known to the victim by name, particularly at home or at work, and is not reported to the police. The pattern of teen ...
The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measured from the 1989-2000 International Crime Victims Surveys. I find that an increase in the share of young people born to a teen mother increases the assault rate. The type of assault affected is perpetrated by unarmed lone assailants known to the victim by name, particularly at home or at work, and is not reported to the police. The pattern of teen ...
Male signals are frequently studied in a single behavioral context, but in some cases they may assist multiple functions, namely for both male– male competition and female mate choice. Boatwhistles are known as the mate attraction calls of toadfishes typically produced during the breeding season. However, recent observations with the Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Batrachoididae) indicate that the emission of boatwhistles is not restricted to this period, which suggests a function in other behavioral contexts such as agonistic territorial interactions. We experimentally manipulated the social context of toadfish males to investigate whether boatwhistles are produced during territorial defense, by introducing ‘intruders’ in an experimental tank containing nesting ‘resident’ males. Furthermore, we examined whether parental...
Een ideeëngeschiedenis van missionarissen werkzaam onder de Aborigines in Australië gedurende de 19e eeuw.
Black & white photograph on a yellow base. A smiling man holds a tire. He has dark hair and he wears a shirt and vest. In the background is a sedan parked next to a picket fence.
An optical illusion. From far away, the image looks like a portrait of Uncle Sam. A close-up view reveals a grouping of images depicting the war effort, including a soldier, a sailor, a pilot, a smelter worker, a scientist, a nurse, a farmer, factories with smokestacks, a battleship, the U.S. Capitol building, and U.S. flags. In the lower left corner is the text of a poem by Jack Childs.
Community Correspondence - 60 Letters from citizens supporting to keep the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Open
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