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You search for habitual and 25,063 records were found.

O objectivo central deste estudo foi caracterizar o perfil da actividade física de crianças de ambos os sexos, de uma escola da cidade de Bragança, ao longo de 4 dias. A amostra foi constituída por 14 raparigas e 11 rapazes de 9,5±0,6 anos de idade. A actividade física foi avaliada através do monitor de actividade física CSA 7164, ao longo de 4 dias consecutivos, dois dias de semana – Segunda e Sexta, e dois dias de fim de semana – Sábado e Domingo. O CSA foi colocado no punho do braço não dominante. Após a colecta dos dados foi calculada a média de contagens por minuto em cada dia e em cada hora. A MANOVA de medidas repetidas foi utilizada para analisar as diferenças entre sexos, entre os dias e entre as horas em cada dia na intensidade de actividade física. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (R) foi utilizado para analisar a var...
Os níveis de actividade física habitual (AF) são um factor importante na prevenção de uma série de doenças crónicas. Supõe-se que os hábitos de AF que se instalam durante a infância poderão perdurar até à idade adulta, contudo não estão esclarecidos quais os factores associados à adesão à prática de AF. O objectivo deste trabalho é estudar a associação dos níveis de AF com a coordenação motora (CM), as habilidades motoras (HM) e a aptidão física (ApF) em crianças. A amostra foi constituída por 144 crianças (meninas n = 68, meninos n = 78) com idades compreendidas entre os 4 e os 9 anos. Foi utilizada bateria Fitnessgram para avaliar a ApF nos seguintes itens (apenas nas crianças com idade superior a 5 anos: push-up, curl-up, trunk-lift e corrida/marcha da milha. A coordenação motora foi avaliação através da bateria KTK. As habilidades...
A variety of cues have been proven to elicit reactivity in nicotine-dependent individuals. Since such reactivity has been shown to form a source of relapse, treatments aim at extinguishing this reactivity. Yet, typically, in cue-exposure treatments a very limited range of relevant stimuli is used, usually focusing only on proximal stimuli (e.g., a cigarette) rather than on contextual cues that trigger craving (e.g., a bar). The restriction to proximal cues may be one of the reasons for the low efficacy of cue-exposure treatments. In the current pilot study (N = 88), we aimed to evaluate the effect on relapse rates of exposure to contextual cues prior to quitting smoking, by varying the degree of exposure/extinction to habitual smoking contexts prior to quitting between groups. Results suggest that context exposure prior to smoking cess...
Recent work suggests that a dose of 200–400 mg caffeine can enhance both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention in individuals with low caffeine consumption profiles. The present study seeks to determine whether individuals with relatively high caffeine consumption profiles would show similar advantages. To this end, we examined the effects of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on low- and high-level visual attention in individuals with high consumption profiles (n = 36), in a double-blind study using a repeated measures design. Results from the Attention Network Test indicated that caffeine enhanced both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention, but only at the highest administered dose (400 mg). We demonstrate that in habitual consumers high doses of caffeine can produce beneficial chan...
Habits are notoriously difficult to break, and, if broken, are usually replaced by new routines. To examine the neural basis of these characteristics, we recorded spike activity in cortical and striatal habit sites as rats learned maze tasks. Over-training induced a shift from purposeful to habitual behavior. This shift coincided with the activation of neuronal ensembles in the infralimbic neocortex and the sensorimotor striatum, which became engaged simultaneously but developed changes in spike activity with distinct time-courses and stability. The striatum rapidly acquired an action-bracketing activity pattern insensitive to reward devaluation but sensitive to running automaticity. A similar pattern developed in the upper layers of the infralimbic cortex, but it formed only late during over-training and closely tracked habit states. ...
The focus of this study is the habitual speculator in commodity futures markets. The speculator's activity broadens a market, creates essential liquidity, and performs an irreplaceable pricing function. Working knowledge of the profiles and motivations of habitual speculators is essential to both market theorist and policy makers. Responses to a 73 question survey were collected directly from retail commodity brokers with offices in Alabama. Each questionnaire recorded information on an individual commodity client who had traded for an extended period of time. The typical trader studied is a married, white male, age 52. He is affluent and well educated. He is a self-employed business owner who can recover from financial setbacks. He is a politically right wing conservative involved in the political process. He assumes a good deal of ri...
Recent behavioral studies in both humans and rodents have found evidence that performance in decision-making tasks depends on two different learning processes; one encoding the relationship between actions and their consequences and a second involving the formation of stimulus–response associations. These learning processes are thought to govern goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively, and have been found to depend on homologous corticostriatal networks in these species. Thus, recent research using comparable behavioral tasks in both humans and rats has implicated homologous regions of cortex (medial prefrontal cortex/medial orbital cortex in humans and prelimbic cortex in rats) and of dorsal striatum (anterior caudate in humans and dorsomedial striatum in rats) in goal-directed action and in the control of habitual actions (p...
Background: Antioxidant status can be used as a biomarker to assess chronic disease risk and diet can modulate antioxidant defence. Objective: To examine effects of vegetarian diet and variations in the habitual intakes of foods and nutrients on blood antioxidants. Subjects and Setting: Thirty-one vegetarians (including six vegans) and 58 omnivores, non-smokers, in Northern Ireland. Design: A diet history method was used to assess habitual diet. Antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, uric acid, zinc-and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in fasting plasma and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes. Results: Vegetarians had approximately 15% higher levels of plasma carotenoids compared...
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