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You search for habitual and 25,035 records were found.

Recent behavioral studies in both humans and rodents have found evidence that performance in decision-making tasks depends on two different learning processes; one encoding the relationship between actions and their consequences and a second involving the formation of stimulus–response associations. These learning processes are thought to govern goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively, and have been found to depend on homologous corticostriatal networks in these species. Thus, recent research using comparable behavioral tasks in both humans and rats has implicated homologous regions of cortex (medial prefrontal cortex/medial orbital cortex in humans and prelimbic cortex in rats) and of dorsal striatum (anterior caudate in humans and dorsomedial striatum in rats) in goal-directed action and in the control of habitual actions (p...
The focus of this study is the habitual speculator in commodity futures markets. The speculator's activity broadens a market, creates essential liquidity, and performs an irreplaceable pricing function. Working knowledge of the profiles and motivations of habitual speculators is essential to both market theorist and policy makers. Responses to a 73 question survey were collected directly from retail commodity brokers with offices in Alabama. Each questionnaire recorded information on an individual commodity client who had traded for an extended period of time. The typical trader studied is a married, white male, age 52. He is affluent and well educated. He is a self-employed business owner who can recover from financial setbacks. He is a politically right wing conservative involved in the political process. He assumes a good deal of ri...
Background: Antioxidant status can be used as a biomarker to assess chronic disease risk and diet can modulate antioxidant defence. Objective: To examine effects of vegetarian diet and variations in the habitual intakes of foods and nutrients on blood antioxidants. Subjects and Setting: Thirty-one vegetarians (including six vegans) and 58 omnivores, non-smokers, in Northern Ireland. Design: A diet history method was used to assess habitual diet. Antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, uric acid, zinc-and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in fasting plasma and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes. Results: Vegetarians had approximately 15% higher levels of plasma carotenoids compared...
Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical stimulus for homeostatic bone maintenance, whereas dissimilarities might explain why bones respond differently to changes in their environment. We compared the daily strain histories of two different bones from the rabbit: the tibiofibula and the mandible. Bone strain was recorded wirelessly in freely moving animals up to 57 h. Habitual strain amplitudes, rates, and frequencies were compared. The exponential decrease in occurrence of greater strain amplitudes was similar in long and mandibular bone. Also similar was the exponentially decreasing i...
Long-term in-vivo recordings of habitual bone strain in freely moving animals are needed to better understand the everyday mechanical loading environment responsible for bone-tissue maintenance. However, wireless methods to make such recordings are scarce. We report on the successful customisation of a commercially available voltage transmitter hooked-up to a strain-gauge rosette, its subcutaneous implantation in rabbits, and the quality of the implant's strain-gauge recordings. Continuous wireless recordings of a completely operational strain-gauge rosette glued to the mandibular surface of a freely moving rabbit could be made up to 33 h. The resolution of the system was 1.5 microstrains/bit. The noise in the signal was 4.5 microstrains. To facilitate the automatic counting of bone-strain events in the retrieved data, and to calculate...
BACKGROUND: Resting whole mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH play a significant role in pathogenesis of various oral diseases and conditions. AIM: To observe the effect of habitual use of arecanut and various arecanut containing products (AN) on SFR and pH. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Outpatient Department of Dental College. PARTICIPANTS: AN chewers and non-chewers attending Dental college. MEASUREMENTS:SFR and pH. VARIABLES: Type, frequency, duration and exposure time of AN, Smoking and Alcohol habit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects study was divided into chewers (n=110) and non- chewers (n=50). The SFR (expressed in mL/10min) and pH measured. RESULTS: The difference between the mean SFR for chewers and non-chewers was not statistically significant. The difference between mean pH of chewers and non-chewers was...
What are the strategies, skills and behaviors used by entrepreneurs to acquire resources for new ventures? History and contemporary evidence document numerous examples of entrepreneurial resourcefulness. And, several theories in Economics, Sociology and Management recognize the triumphs of entrepreneurial ingenuity. But, few academic studies have closely investigated the empirical dimensions of new venture resource acquisition strategies. This study proposes three new concepts that can be useful for developing theoretical constructs, quantitative and qualitative measures, and empirical tests of the role of resource acquisition strategies in new venture performance. An essay on the role of Resource Parsimony in new venture creation describes the creative solutions developed in response to the need to operate with minimal resources. An e...
This research evaluated two techniques to record the occlusal contacts in habitual maximal intercuspation obtained in models mounted in semi adjustable articulator and in the mouth using an eight-micrometer carbon paper and sensors (T-Scan II). It was selected a sample of twenty five people, male and female, ages between twenty and twenty five years old with natural dentition. The collected data were visually and statistically evaluated by means of the Spearman coefficient. The results showed that the carbon paper as material used for the occlusal contact records enabled to determine exactly the quantity and its locations in the occlusal surface. However, it did not provide the information on the sequence, time and intensity on how these occur. The T-Scan system enabled to determine the quantity, the sequence and the exact time that th...
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