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You search for habitual and 25,035 records were found.

Daily mechanical loading strongly influences the architecture and composition of bone tissue. Throughout the day, the amplitudes, rates, frequencies, and the dispersion over time of these loads vary. Nevertheless, most experimental and descriptive studies on the aforementioned relationship consider only cyclic loading and, in addition, focus on weight-bearing bones. A more complete assessment of the daily loading of bone might lead to a better understanding of the natural everyday stimulus for bone maintenance or adaptive responses. In the present study, we measured the daily habitual strain history of the non-weight-bearing mandible bone in the rabbit. Long-term continuous strain recordings were made using an implantable telemetry device able to read out bone-bonded strain gauges. The lateral surface of the rabbit mandibular corpus wa...
Regular physical activity is generally associated with psychological well-being, although there are relatively few prospective studies in older adults. We investigated habitual physical activity as a risk factor for de novo depressive and anxiety disorders in older men and women from the general population. In this nested case-control study, subjects aged 60 years or more were identified from randomly selected cohorts being followed prospectively in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Cases were individuals with incident depressive or anxiety disorders, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP); controls had no history of these disorders. Habitual physical activity, measured using a validated questionnaire, and other exposures were documented at baseline, approximately four years prior to psychiatric...
Using U.S. steel firm data, we find that lobbying for import protection appears to be habit-forming. To identify heterogeneity in lobbying behavior among firms, we use an expectation-maximization algorithm to sort our firms into groups with different propensities to lobby and estimate the determinants of lobbying in each group. A two-pool model emerges: occasional lobbyers' lobbying depends on their market performance, and habitual lobbyers' lobbying only depends on past lobbying. The latter tends to be larger steel firms whose business is more focused in steel. Our evidence is consistent with dynamic economies of scale in protection seeking breeding protection-dependent firms. Copyright 2001 by Oxford University Press.
This paper reviews the evidence behind the methodological decisions accelerometer users make when assessing habitual physical activity in children aged 0-5 years. The purpose of the review is to outline an evidence-guided protocol for using accelerometry in young children and to identify gaps in the evidence base where further investigation is required. Studies evaluating accelerometry methodologies in young children were reviewed in two age groups (0-2 years and 3-5 years) to examine: (i) which accelerometer should be used, (ii) where the accelerometer should be placed, (iii) which epoch should be used, (iv) how many days of monitoring are required, (v) how many minutes of monitoring per day are required, (vi) how data should be reduced, (vii) which cut-point definitions for identifying activity intensity should be used, and (viii) wh...
A actividade física habitual foi avaliada em 157 indivíduos de ambos os sexos da região do Grande Porto, com idades compreendidas entre os 8 e os 16 anos. Foram utilizados acelerómetros da Computer Science and Application Inc. (CSA). Os resultados revelaram que os rapazes da Grande Porto são mais activos que as raparigas, com particular destaque para as actividades mais intensas. Ao longo da idade, a actividade física parece declinar acentuadamente no sexo feminino, o que corresponde à tendência descrita em outros estudos internacionais. No presente estudo, os jovens parecem cumprir as recomendações propostas por entidades internacionais pois, tanto os rapazes como as raparigas acumularam mais de 30 minutos por dia de actividade moderada, vigorosa e muito vigorosa. Relativamente à segunda recomendação do International Consensus Confere...
O objectivo central deste estudo foi caracterizar o perfil da actividade física de crianças de ambos os sexos, de uma escola da cidade de Bragança, ao longo de 4 dias. A amostra foi constituída por 14 raparigas e 11 rapazes de 9,5±0,6 anos de idade. A actividade física foi avaliada através do monitor de actividade física CSA 7164, ao longo de 4 dias consecutivos, dois dias de semana – Segunda e Sexta, e dois dias de fim de semana – Sábado e Domingo. O CSA foi colocado no punho do braço não dominante. Após a colecta dos dados foi calculada a média de contagens por minuto em cada dia e em cada hora. A MANOVA de medidas repetidas foi utilizada para analisar as diferenças entre sexos, entre os dias e entre as horas em cada dia na intensidade de actividade física. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (R) foi utilizado para analisar a var...
Os níveis de actividade física habitual (AF) são um factor importante na prevenção de uma série de doenças crónicas. Supõe-se que os hábitos de AF que se instalam durante a infância poderão perdurar até à idade adulta, contudo não estão esclarecidos quais os factores associados à adesão à prática de AF. O objectivo deste trabalho é estudar a associação dos níveis de AF com a coordenação motora (CM), as habilidades motoras (HM) e a aptidão física (ApF) em crianças. A amostra foi constituída por 144 crianças (meninas n = 68, meninos n = 78) com idades compreendidas entre os 4 e os 9 anos. Foi utilizada bateria Fitnessgram para avaliar a ApF nos seguintes itens (apenas nas crianças com idade superior a 5 anos: push-up, curl-up, trunk-lift e corrida/marcha da milha. A coordenação motora foi avaliação através da bateria KTK. As habilidades...
A variety of cues have been proven to elicit reactivity in nicotine-dependent individuals. Since such reactivity has been shown to form a source of relapse, treatments aim at extinguishing this reactivity. Yet, typically, in cue-exposure treatments a very limited range of relevant stimuli is used, usually focusing only on proximal stimuli (e.g., a cigarette) rather than on contextual cues that trigger craving (e.g., a bar). The restriction to proximal cues may be one of the reasons for the low efficacy of cue-exposure treatments. In the current pilot study (N = 88), we aimed to evaluate the effect on relapse rates of exposure to contextual cues prior to quitting smoking, by varying the degree of exposure/extinction to habitual smoking contexts prior to quitting between groups. Results suggest that context exposure prior to smoking cess...
Recent work suggests that a dose of 200–400 mg caffeine can enhance both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention in individuals with low caffeine consumption profiles. The present study seeks to determine whether individuals with relatively high caffeine consumption profiles would show similar advantages. To this end, we examined the effects of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on low- and high-level visual attention in individuals with high consumption profiles (n = 36), in a double-blind study using a repeated measures design. Results from the Attention Network Test indicated that caffeine enhanced both vigilance and the executive control of visual attention, but only at the highest administered dose (400 mg). We demonstrate that in habitual consumers high doses of caffeine can produce beneficial chan...
Habits are notoriously difficult to break, and, if broken, are usually replaced by new routines. To examine the neural basis of these characteristics, we recorded spike activity in cortical and striatal habit sites as rats learned maze tasks. Over-training induced a shift from purposeful to habitual behavior. This shift coincided with the activation of neuronal ensembles in the infralimbic neocortex and the sensorimotor striatum, which became engaged simultaneously but developed changes in spike activity with distinct time-courses and stability. The striatum rapidly acquired an action-bracketing activity pattern insensitive to reward devaluation but sensitive to running automaticity. A similar pattern developed in the upper layers of the infralimbic cortex, but it formed only late during over-training and closely tracked habit states. ...
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