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You search for habitual and 25,063 records were found.

Previous studies have demonstrated that sleep duration is closely associated with metabolic risk factors. However, the relationship between habitual sleep duration and blood pressure values in Japanese population has not been fully established. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,670 Japanese male subjects to clarify the relationship between habitual sleep duration and blood pressure values. The study subjects were divided into four groups (< 6, 6-, 7-, and a parts per thousand yen8 h) according to their nightly habitual sleep duration. The rate of subjects with < 6, 6-, 7-, and a parts per thousand yen8 h sleep duration was 12.0, 37.6, 38.2, and 12.2 %, respectively. Compared with the group with 7-h sleep duration (referent), the < 6 and a parts per thousand yen8 h groups had significantly greater systolic and diastolic blood pr...
Chronic alcohol misuse is an intractable problem for contemporary medicine. This paper explores some of the origins of this intractability, by examining the formulation of medical and moral models of habitual drunkenness during the nineteenth century. Its objective is to sketch out an historical perspective for contemporary problems in disentangling the relationship between culpability and susceptibility in alcohol dependence.
Performing a prospective memory task repeatedly changes the nature of the task from episodic to habitual. The goal of the present study was to investigate the neural basis of this transition. In two experiments, we contrasted event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by correct responses to prospective memory targets in the first, more episodic part of the experiment with those of the second, more habitual part of the experiment. Specifically, we tested whether the early, middle, or late ERP-components, which are thought to reflect cue detection, retrieval of the intention, and post-retrieval processes, respectively, would be changed by routinely performing the prospective memory task. The results showed a differential ERP effect in the middle time window (450–650 ms post-stimulus). Source localization using low resolution brain electroma...
Background: Television viewing time is associated with obesity risk independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). However, it is unknown whether the relationship of TV viewing time with body mass index (BMI) is moderated by other domains of physical activity. Methods: A mail survey collected height; weight; TV viewing time; physical activity for transportation (habitual transport behavior; past week walking and bicycling), for recreation (LTPA), and in workplace; and sociodemographic variables in Adelaide, Australia. General linear models examined whether physical activity domains moderate the association between BMI and TV viewing time. Results: Analysis of the sample (N = 1408) found that TV time, habitual transport, and LTPA were independently associated with participant's BMI. The interaction between TV time and habit...
Spectral measures are sensitive to dysarthric speech. However, it is unclear whether the spectral differences in dysarthric and healthy speech are due to slow articulation rate or reflect other qualitative changes in speech. Spectral measures were used to detect differences between habitual, slow, and "clear" speaking modes in 12 healthy speakers. Matched t-tests were used to determine differences in the rate and degree of spectral change between the speaking modes. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess how well rate of spectral change predicts articulation rate (syllables per second). Clear speech had a significantly higher degree of spectral change than habitual speech, and slow speech had a significantly slower rate of spectral change than habitual and clear speaking modes. These differences occurred in ...
This review examined recent evidence on associations between objectively measured habitual physical activity and adiposity. A search for observational studies was carried out using several electronic databases from June 2004-June 2008. Of 1 255 potentially eligible papers, 47 papers were included, which described 48 studies. Most studies (41/48; 85%) were cross-sectional and 31/48 (65%) used proxies for adiposity, such as body mass index (BMI) or BMI z-score as the outcome measure. Few studies (10%; 5/48) focused on pre-school children. There was consistent evidence of negative associations between objectively measured physical activity and adiposity: significant negative associations were observed in 38/48 (79%) of studies overall. The present review supports the hypothesis that higher levels of habitual physical activity are protecti...
This study reports on the influence of habitual alcohol drinking on α-amylase activity in individuals yet to manifest any physical or clinical sign associated with such drinking habit. α-Amylase activity was determined in saliva and plasma samples from randomly selected volunteers. Twenty-five male heavy drinkers and equivalent number of sex, age and weight-matched non-drinkers, all in apparent good health were enlisted for the study after obtaining their consent. Mean α-amylase activity in saliva and plasma was significantly higher (p<0.05) in habitual drinkers (185.0±6.0 IU/L; 113.5 ± 4.0 IU/L) than in non-drinking controls (144.0 ± 8.0 IU/L; 72.5±3.5 IU/L). Significant increase in both saliva and plasma α-amylase activity could be used in the early diagnosis of heavy alcohol drinking.
Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individual differences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans. Specifically, vulnerability to habitual “slips of action” toward no-longer-rewarding outcomes was predicted by estimated white matter tract strength in the premotor cortex seeded from the posterior putamen (as well as by gray matter density in the posterior putamen as determined with voxel-based morphometry). In contrast, flexible goal-directed action was predicted by estimated tract strength in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seeded from the caudate. These findings suggest that integrity of dissociable corticostriatal pathways underlies individual d...
Quantitative and qualitative data are examined in an analysis of habitual late payment of trade credit by UK small firms. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to test the influence of variables expected to discriminate between small firms which pay late habitually and those which never or only occasionally pay late. Case studies extend quantitative analysis by validating interpretation of the results and providing explanations for unexpected outcomes. The results provide strong evidence of a financing demand for habitual late payment. There is a positive relationship between habitual late payment and difficulty obtaining bank finance and late payment by debtors and a negative relationship with the use of long term sources of finance. The influence of relationships between customer and supplier is shown to be complex. A concentr...
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