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You search for habitual and 25,035 records were found.

This article investigates the effect of habitual smoking on full-time employees' hourly wages, which represent one of the social costs of smoking. Because the decision whether to smoke is affected by the cigarette tax level and by various socioeconomic factors, it is appropriate that we treat smoking indicators as endogenous in econometric analyses. To control this endogeneity, I use the levels of state and federal cigarette taxes per package and family attributes as instrumental variables for habitual smoking. According to the estimation results, there is no difference in wages between smokers and nonsmokers of both genders after appropriately controlling for the endogeneity of smoking. This result is different from the results of most previous studies, most of which suffer from several methodological problems. I also found that cigar...
This paper presents a new method to detect network traffic threats based on packet classification which is result from the identification of insider’s habitual activities. We assess the habitual activities by examining regular expression of web applications use by insiders together with the existing server activities log and rules pattern from global update. We capture the packets, analyze the packet and finally, categorize into three main categories whether it is normal, suspicious or malicious. Our method is able to detect threat with low false alarm rate and provides event list handler to rate the risk for prevention purposes. We apply our method to evaluate system security for help security officer (IT Manager and Administrator) to be aware of status network activities.
The amygdala central nucleus (CeN) is a heterogeneous structure lying within the medial temporal lobe and is known to be involved in the processing and reacting to emotional events. Traditionally, the CeN has been the focus of research investigating aversive Pavlovian conditioning, specifically in the acquisition and expression of fear responses. Here, a series of experiments have been conducted to examine the role of the CeN in appetitive instrumental conditioning. Generally in this type of learning, behaviours are initially goal-directed and sensitive to the outcome value, but after a period of training, behaviours shift to being habitual. The role of the CeN in habitual control of instrumental actions was investigated in an overtraining-induced habit in rats. It was found that the anterior region of the CeN (aCeN) is critical for ha...
This study presents the first direct investigation of the hypothesis that dopamine depletion of the dorsal striatum in mild Parkinson disease leads to impaired stimulus–response habit formation, thereby rendering behavior slow and effortful. However, using an instrumental conflict task, we show that patients are able to rely on direct stimulus–response associations when a goal-directed strategy causes response conflict, suggesting that habit formation is not impaired. If anything our results suggest a disease severity–dependent deficit in goaldirected behavior. These results are discussed in the context of Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of habitual and goaldirected behavior.
We used kinematic, kinetic and EMG analysis to compare the spontaneous heel-contact gait patterns of 13 children classified as habitual toe walkers (HTWs) and age-matched controls. In the HTWs, the incidence of spontaneous heel-contact strides during a single recording session ranged from 15% to 92%, with no correlation with age, passive ankle joint excursion, walking speed and trial order. Hallmarks of the heel-contact strides were premature heel-rise, reversal of the second rocker, relative shortening of the loading response and anticipation and enhancement of the electromyographic (EMG) activity normally observed in the triceps surae (TS) during the first half of the stance phase. This variant of the locomotor program is different from the walking patterns observed in normally developing toddlers and children with cerebral palsy (CP...
A acelerometria é um método objetivo que permite quantificar a atividade física (AF) habitual. Contudo, é importante determinar a validade dos diversos modelos e respetivos valores de corte na estimação da intensidade da AF no estilo de vida. Objetivo: Validar o tempo despendido em AF de intensidade moderada e vigorosa (AFIMV), obtido através de diferentes valores de corte definidos com base na acelerometria, tendo como referência o método combinado de acelerometria com monitorização da frequência cardíaca. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 pessoas do género masculino (25.4 ± 5.3 anos; IMC: 23.2 ± 2.9 kg.m-2). O tempo despendido em AFIMV foi determinado pelo método combinado e pelos modelos desenvolvidos com base na acelerometria (Freedson, Yngve, Brage, Hendelman, Swartz, Leenders e Troiano). Foi analisada a comparação de médias, regressão ...
Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the li...
Dano-Norwegian, the Sami language and Finnish express animacy differently in their grammatical gender systems. While Dano-Norwegian has an elaborate grammatical gender system with overt marks on the nouns, Finnish and the Sami language have no overt grammatical gender systems. The Dano-Norwegian referential gender system specifies the natural gender of the referent. Finnish specifies whether the referent is human or not, while the Sami language does neither. In Dano-Norwegian and Finnish there are lexical expressions that indicate the referent’s natural gender, but these are few in the Sami language. These differences allow a comparison of the different languages based on the semantic features natural gender and human. In this thesis, I have compared results from four different samples, two Finnish samples, one Dano-Norwegian sample, ...
Vain tiivistelmä. Opinnäytteiden sidotut arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa HY:n keskustakampuksen valtiotieteiden kirjastossa (Unioninkatu 35). Opinnäytteitä lainataan ainoastaan mikrokortteina kirjaston kaukopalvelun välityksellä
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