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You search for habitual and 25,035 records were found.

Current psychological scholarship is based on a dichotomy between habit, associated with automatic reflex behavior, and creativity, which involves deliberation, purpose and heuristic procedures. However, this account is problematic and contradicts everyday experience where mastery, for instance, is one of the highest levels of creative performance achieved within a habitual practice. This article argues that such a separation misrepresents both habit and creativity with important theoretical and practical consequences. A first step toward reconciling the two terms is made by revisiting a series of foundational strands of theory from psychology and related disciplines. In light of these sources, habit is reformulated as a social, situated, and open system, and habitual creativity defined as the intrinsically creative nature of customary...
rationality, backward induction, epistemic logic, conditionals
When sharing load among multiple muscles, humans appear to select an optimal pattern of activation that minimizes costs such as the effort or variability of movement. How the nervous system achieves this behavior, however, is unknown. Here we show that contrary to predictions from optimal control theory, habitual muscle activation patterns are surprisingly robust to changes in limb biomechanics. We first developed a method to simulate joint forces in real time from electromyographic recordings of the wrist muscles. When the model was altered to simulate the effects of paralyzing a muscle, the subjects simply increased the recruitment of all muscles to accomplish the task, rather than recruiting only the useful muscles. When the model was altered to make the force output of one muscle unusually noisy, the subjects again persisted in rec...
VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two...
This study explored the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the planning and execution of an overt goal-related handle rotation task. More specifically, we studied the neural basis of motor actions concerning the influence of the grasp choice. The aim of the present study was to differentiate cerebral activity between grips executed in a habitual and a non-habitual mode, and between specified and free grip choices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to differentiate cerebral activity underlying overt goal-related actions executed with a focus on the habitual mode. In a handle rotation task, participants had to use thumb-toward (habitual) or thumb-away (non-habitual) grips to rotate a handle to a given target position. Reaction and reach times were shorter for the habitual compared to the non-habitual mode indicating that th...
Em Portugal, o envelhecimento demográfico tem vindo a acentuar-se nas últimas décadas, demonstrado pela inversão da pirâmide etária, o que se traduz por uma redução da população jovem e um aumento da população idosa. Na problemática do envelhecimento é notório o decréscimo da funcionalidade física. Sabemos que o aumento da atividade física está relacionado com o acréscimo das capacidades funcionais e contribui para maximizar a Independência Funcional. Neste contexto, desenvolvemos uma pesquisa sobre o "Impacto da Atividade Física Habitual na Independência Funcional da Pessoa idosa em contexto de Centros de Dia". Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo-correlacional, com o objetivo de avaliar o Impacto da Atividade Física Habitual na Independência Funcional da Pessoa idosa a frequentar Centros de Dia no concelho de ...
Habitual physical activity (HPA) has many benefits for general health. Motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can impact on their HPA. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the relationship between HPA and motor capacity in children with CP aged 3-12 years for all gross motor functional abilities (GMFCS I-V) compared to typically developing children. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science from 1989 to November, 2013) were searched using keywords "children with cerebral palsy", "physical activity", "motor capacity" and "motor function" including their synonyms and MesH terms. Studies were included if they (i) were conducted in children with CP aged between 3 and 12 years, (ii) assessed HPA or time spent sedentary, (iii) assessed motor capacity in ...
Organizational learning Mindfulness Habitual entrepreneurship Opportunity discovery Opportunity exploration
Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. C...
El hematoma intramural del intestino delgado es una complicación poco habitual de la utilización de anticoagulantes orales. El diagnóstico sólo es posible cuando se asocian estos síntomas a una historia clínica de anticoagulación oral y pruebas radiológicas. A continuación se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente que ingreso por dolor epigástrico asociado a vómitos de retención con 48 h de evolución y antecedentes de anticoagulación oral con warfarina. La ecografía y la tomografía computarizada abdominal mostraban un asa yeyunal con espesamiento parietal difuso, indicativo de hematoma intramural. Se realizó tratamiento conservador, con regresión sintomática al segundo día y reabsorción del hematoma intramural del yeyuno. Se reintrodujo tratamiento anticoagulante, sin nueva recidiva.
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