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We consider a Markov chain in continuous time with one absorbing state and a finite set S of transient states. When S is irreducible the limiting distribution of the chain as t→∞, conditional on survival up to time t, is known to equal the (unique) quasi-stationary distribution of the chain. We address the problem of generalizing this result to a setting in which S may be reducible, and show that it remains valid if the eigenvalue with maximal real part of the generator of the (sub)Markov chain on S has geometric (but not, necessarily, algebraic) multiplicity one. The result is then applied to pure death processes and, more generally, to quasi-death processes. We also show that the result holds true even when the geometric multiplicity is larger than one, provided the irreducible subsets of S satisfy an accessibility constraint. A key ...
Objectives. This study was designed to verify initial observations of the clinical and prognostic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by cardiac troponin T gene mutations. Background. The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is usually familial. Mutations causing familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been identified in a number of contractile protein genes, raising the possibility of genetic screening for subjects at risk. A previous report suggested that mutations in the cardiac troponin T gene were notable because they were associated with a particularly poor prognosis but only mild hypertrophy. Given the variability of some genotype:phenotype correlations, further analysis of cardiac troponin T mutations has been a priority. Methods. Deoxyribonucleic acid from su...
This dissertation is a transnational study that argues that a structure of mourning, spoken through and effected by the historical romance, underlies the narrative of national culture as it emerges in the Americas during the early nineteenth century. The writing, consumption and preservation of these texts reveal not only the psychic life of community but also the material basis for that psychic life. Writing and reading, the production and circulation of texts, plays a crucial role in developing this psychic life, and the historical romance was particularly important in the Americas for imagining a national legacy. Current criticism emphasizes the sexual coupling and generative romantic structure of the marriage plot around which many of these novels circulate. This criticism emphasizes the somatic nature of the genre, the corporeal l...
“Ali, entre delicadezas e graças espirituosas (…) a beleza é o caminho para o espírito.” Thomas Mann, A Morte em Veneza. Depois da obra prima cinematográfica de Visconti, o Adagietto da Quinta Sinfonia de Gustav Mahler é provavelmente indissociável, para todos aqueles que conhecem o filme, da obra prima de Thomas Mann. Mas gostaria complementar esta perspectiva de A Morte em Veneza com uma outra: a que dela nos deixa Benjamin Britten na sua última ópera, Death in Venice, estreada dois anos após o filme de Visconti, no Aldeburgh [dizer: “oldebara”] Festival, em Junho de 1973. Benjamin Britten incubou durante largos anos o projecto de transportar para um palco de ópera A Morte em Veneza de Thomas Mann. Ditou o destino que as duas transmutações desta última – a cinematográfica de Luchino Visconti, e a musical de Benjamin Britten – surgiss...
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and sudden unexplained death (SUD) in the young (1-44 years) is rare and is often caused by inherited cardiac diseases. Relatives of young SCD and SUD victims have an increased risk of carrying the inherited predisposition to develop cardiac disease. Early detection of inherited cardiac diseases in families offers opportunities to prevent SCD through treatment. Although the yield of screening, in terms of the detection of inherited diseases, has been investigated for relatives of SUD victims, studies on the cost-effectiveness of screening of relatives with the aim to prevent SCD are scarce. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information on the incidence and causes of SCD and SUD in the young (1-44 years) in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of inherited cardiac diseases. Furthermore, we st...
Integration of mortality data by cause of death is typically problematic for researchers because of the inadequacies of historical records. Two aspects of cause-of-death (or disease) data processing are discussed here: vocabulary and specificity. By developing a system of processing in which causes of death are in nested tables that are linked with a relational database program, the researcher can integrate highly specific and sensitive disease data with data that are less specific. Vocabulary variations can also be maintained by the system. The result of integrating data of differing specificity levels and vocabularies allows one to use mixed data for longitudinal analyses. The author developed the present system to allow the use of nineteenth-century British army statistical data, and an example of the application is presented.
Although the majority of pregnancy failures occur during the embryonic period, reports indicate that approximately 5% of detected pregnancies are lost during the fetal period, underlining the fact that fetal death is a substantial cause of economic loss. However, examination for fetal development or death during pregnancy is not performed routinely in domestic animals, and reference curves for normal fetal growth are, therefore, scarce. In this paper, the numerous possible causes of fetal death are reviewed briefly, with emphasis on the role of placental problems in fetal death and impaired fetal viability. In this respect, the role of placental insufficiency as a cause of pregnancy loss in twin pregnancies in monotocous species is well known, whereas the abnormal placental development leading to retarded fetal growth during pregnancie...
The division tracking dye, carboxyfluorescin diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is currently the most informative labeling technique for characterizing the division history of cells in the immune system. Gett and Hodgkin [Nat. Immunol. 1:239–244, 2000] have pioneered the quantitative analysis of CFSE data. We confirm and extend their data analysis approach using simple mathematical models. We employ the extended Gett and Hodgkin [Nat. Immunol. 1:239–244, 2000] method to estimate the time to first division, the fraction of cells recruited into division, the cell cycle time, and the average death rate from CFSE data on T cells stimulated under different concentrations of IL-2. The same data is also fitted with a simple mathematical model that we derived by reformulating the numerical model of Deenick et al. [J. Immunol. 170:4963–4972, 2...
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