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Mortality statistics are much used although their accuracy is often questioned. Producers of mortality statistics check for errors in death certification but current methods only capture obvious mistakes. This thesis investigates whether non-obvious errors can be found by linking death certificates to hospital discharge data. Data: 69,818 deaths in Sweden 1995. Paper I: Analysing differences between the underlying cause of death from the death certificate (UC) and the main discharge condition from the patient’s last hospitalization (MDC). Paper II: Testing whether differences can be explained by ICD definitions of UC and MDC. Paper III: Surveying methods in 44 current studies on the accuracy of death certificates. Paper IV: Checking death certificates against case summaries for: i) 573 deaths where UC and MDC were the same or the diffe...
Yeasts as eukaryotic microorganisms with simple, well known and tractable genetics, have long been powerful model systems for studying complex biological phenomena such as the cell cycle or vesicle fusion. Until recently, yeast has been assumed as a cellular ‘clean room’ to study the interactions and the mechanisms of action of mammalian apoptotic regulators. However, the finding of an endogenous programmed cell death (PCD) process in yeast with an apoptotic phenotype has turned yeast into an ‘unclean’ but even more powerful model for apoptosis research. Yeast cells appear to possess an endogenous apoptotic machinery including its own regulators and pathway(s). Such machinery may not exactly recapitulate that of mammalian systems but it represents a simple and valuable model which will assist in the future understanding of the complex ...
An accumulation of sudden unexpected cardiac deaths (SUCD) occurred in young Swedish orienteers, most of whom were elite athletes. From 1979 to 1992 the incidence in 18 to 34 year old male elite orienteers ranked on the national level the same year as death was calculated to 30 (per 100,000), which represents a 20 to 40 fold increase from the expected rate. From 1989 to 1992, the incidence was 50. There were, however, no indications on any similar clusters of SUCD in other sports. A special program to alter behaviour in orienteers was implemented in 1992-1993, after which there have been no more cases of SUCD in orienteers below 35 years of age. A histopathological re-evaluation of 16 cases of SUCD revealed myocarditis in 75% of these cases. In parallel, four of those cases also had changes mimicing arrhythmogenic right ventricular car...
Laryngeal cysts are relatively uncommon and account for about five per cent of benign laryngeal lesions. The commonest location is the epiglottis. Pathologically these lesions may be divided into epithelial, tonsillar or oncocytic types. The patients may be asymptomatic or present with hoarseness, dysphagia, cough or airway obstruction. Epithelial cysts of the larynx, although histologically benign, may produce sudden and unexpected death from asphyxia. A case is presented of a 32-year-old female who was sexually assaulted and later found dead. Death was most likely due to laryngeal obstruction caused by an epiglottic cyst. Alcohol intoxication (BAC = 0.25g%) is likely to have been a contributory factor. In this case the results of the autopsy helped to exonerate the accused from being charged with murder. Other medico-legal problems t...
Alerts people who visit, live, or work in certain areas of California and Oregon about a serious plant disease called Sudden Oak Death, and asks them to take steps to prevent spreading the disease. Gives action steps, shows disease symptoms on various host plants, and gives numerous sources for more information. Full color. Photos. Contains revised quarantine information for areas in Curry County, Oregon, as of January 2012.
Marais Combrinck, John D. Gilbert, and Roger W. Byard
Cardiovascular Research Unit, Center for Experimental Surgery and Anaesthesiology, KU Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 17, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. paul.herijgers@med.kuleuven.ac.be
Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.
The original publication is available at http://www.samj.org.za
Important infortnation on demography, epidemiology, inter-population differences in growth, infant burial practices, and social aspects of the community can be gleaned from the study of perinatal bones. The increasing number of perinates unearthed from prehistoric sites in Southeast Asia provides a rare opportunity to investigate these issues. The high number offull-term infants represented at the site of Khok Phanom Di in Central Thailand (4000-3500 B.P.) remains an enigma. This is an important issue for bioarchaeologists as infant mortality patterns are sensitive barometers of the health and fertility of a population. This study investigated the perinatal age distributions of several chronologically spread sites in prehistoric Southeast Asia with differing subsistence modes and evidence of social complexity. Results show that the age...
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