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Comment: 24 pages, LATEX, 9 figures, needs macro lamuphys.sty, to appear in the Proceedings of the 10th Born Symposium
This is the first part of an investigation of microdosimetric concepts relevant to numerical calculations. The definitions of the microdosimetric quantities are reviewed and formalized, and some additional conventions are adopted. The common interpretation of the quantities in terms of energy imparted to spherical sites is contrasted with their interpretation as the result of a diffusion process applied to the initial spatial pattern of energy transfers in the irradiated medium.
This is the second part of an investigation of microdosimetric concepts relevant to numerical calculations. Two different types of distributions of the microdosimetric quantities are discussed. The sampling procedures are considered, which lead from the initial pattern of energy transfer, the so-called inchoate distribution, to the distribution of specific energy and thier mean values. The dependences of the distribution of specific energy on absorbed dose is related to the sampling procedures.
The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.
Economic geography can help us understand why people and firms choose to locate where they do, whether these are good choices from a broader efficiency/resource allocation viewpoint, and what the implications of these choices are for the distribution of income and wealth. This paper is an attempt to synthesise the key pieces of recent literature on economic geography and think about how the concepts may apply to New Zealand. The paper first builds a framework of the key forces affecting the geographic location of people and firms. The framework splits the concepts into exogenous and endogenous forces, with a particular focus on agglomerating and dispersing forces. The framework can be used to think about location decisions both within countries and between countries, and a closer look is taken at how the concepts apply to New Zealand a...
A universal dictionary of concepts, developed as a part of the ongoing effort to create a semantic intermediary language for global information exchange, is presented. The article describes basic principles and contents of the dictionary and outlines the current state of the project. The dictionary can evolve into an open and freely available language-independent resource with many potential applications. For example, the extensible dictionary of concepts can serve as a pivot to uniformly record and link meanings of words of different languages and facilitate creation of bi- and multilingual dictionaries. Another possible use is word sense markup of corpora. It could bring rich extra benefits due to the fact that the same set of concepts is going to be linked with major world languages including Russian, English, Spanish etc. and suppo...
[fre] Sur quelques concepts marxistes . . Analyse interne de l'axiomatique et des modèles marxistes en dehors de tout esprit polémique, pour préciser le sens des concepts et permettre la comparaison avec les processus réels du capitalisme.. Une confusion apparaît, dans le modèle marxiste usuel, entre taux de profit et marge bénéficiaire, qui rend contestable la démonstration classique de la baisse tendancielle du taux de profit. L'égalisation des taux de profit par l'effet de la concurrence entre capitalistes est un phénomène réel ; la déduction qui en est faite à partir de l'axiomatique en question introduit des mécanismes paradoxaux et parfois contradictoires.. L'étude comparative du profit d'entreprise et du profit global, au moyen des instruments de la valeur ajoutée et de la P.I.B., permet d'éclairer le concept d'exploitation, de ...
Comment: 8 pages
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Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.
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