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International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service MG Kailis Group
In this paper we try to combine two approaches. One is the theory of knowledge graphs in which concepts are represented by graphs. The other is the axiomatic theory of fuzzy sets (AFS). The discussion will focus on the idea of fuzzy concept. It will be argued that the fuzziness of a concept in natural language is mainly due to the difference in interpretation that people give to a certain word. As different interpretations lead to different knowledge graphs, the notion of fuzzy concept should be describable in terms of sets of graphs. This leads to a natural introduction of membership values for elements of graphs. Using these membership values we apply AFS theory as well as an alternative approach to calculate fuzzy decision trees, that can be used to determine the most relevant elements of a concept.
Judy Hucker and myself have an equal partnership in the creation of this maths/literacy programme. Her expertise is in mathematics while mine is in literacy and literature.
The claim of my dissertation is that some basic concepts are required for perception. Non-basic concepts, we acquire, and I give an account as to how that process changes our perception. Suppose you are looking at the Mona Lisa. It might seem that you can perceive a lot more shades of color and a lot more shapes than for which you possess precise concepts. I argue against this. For every color or shape in appearance you have the ability to categorize it as that color or shape. It’s just that this is done by your sensory system prior to appearance. I argue that empirical studies show this. Blindsighted patients, for instance, are blind in part of their visual field. But they can use color and shape information received through the blind portio...
Human adults appear different from other animals in their ability to form abstract mental representations that go beyond perceptual similarity. In short, they can conceptualize the world. When and how does this abstract system come into being? To answer this question we need to explore the origins of adult concepts. When does the developing child acquire the ability to use abstract concepts? Does the transition occur around 2 years, with the onset of symbolic representation and language, or is it independent of the emergence of language? When in evolutionary history did an abstract representational system emerge? How would a computational system operating on the basis of perceptual associations develop into a system operating on the basis of abstract relations? Is this ability present in other species, but masked by their inabili...
Au fil de l'accroissement des compétences communautaires, les instruments d'analyse de l'Union européenne sont devenus plus nombreux et plus complexes. Néofonctionnalisme, intergouvernementalisme, fédéralisme, gouvernance, institutionnalisme, européanisation ne sont que quelques-unes des approches théoriques utilisées pour penser l'intégration régionale européenne. Face à ce foisonnement, l'objectif de cet ouvrage est de proposer une synthèse claire et complète des travaux de recherche français et internationaux. Inscrivant concepts et théories dans les débats de leur temps, il fait le point sur les instruments d'analyse de l'intégration européenne propres à la sociologie politique, aux politiques publiques et à la théorie politique sans oublier l'apport des relations internationales. Sabine Saurugger fournit ainsi aux étudiants, aux e...
The full version of this paper can be for free downloaded form http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2221299 This paper is devoted to the analysis of evolution of innovation concepts, aspect and types. First emergence and evolution of different aspects and concepts of innovation are analysed, then the development of innovation concepts from a historical perspective and finally an overview given of types of innovation classifications developed in the literature. Surrounding this different definitions of innovation are described and analyzed in detail. The main goal of the article is to define the trend of development of innovation conceptualization and understanding over time.
Les notions d'ordre, de classement, de rangement sont présentes dans de multiples activités er situations humaines. La formalisation mathématique de ces notions a permis d'abord le grand développement de la théorie des treillis, puis celui de structures ordonnées plus générales, notamment celles relevant des mathématiques discrètes. Les buts principaux de cet ouvrage qui comble un vide sont donc de:<br />- donner les concepts et résultats fondamentaux sur les ensembles ordonnés finis,<br />- présenter leurs usages dans des domaines variés (de la RO ou l'AI à à la micro-économie),<br />- signaler un certain nombre de résultats et de recherches en cours. <br />Le lecteur sera ainsi à même de trouver tout ce qu'il a besoin de connaître sur ces structures sans avoir à essayer de le trouver dans de multiples revues relevant de disciplines v...
This article does not reflect a specific point of view, but proposes vocabulary and concepts to structure the debate on gross national happiness. A common conception, primarily based on Buddhism, may bring future debate to a higher level, preventing the discussions from jumping back and forth between different ends of the spectrum of relevant issues.
Typical studies of concept learning in adults address the learning of novel concepts, but much of learning involves the updating and restructuring of familiar concepts. Research on conceptual change explores this issue directly but differs greatly from the formal approach of the adult learning studies. This paper bridges these two areas to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying concept restructuring. The main idea behind this approach is that concepts are built on causal-explanatory knowledge, and hence, models of causal induction may help to clarify the mechanisms of the restructuring process. A new paradigm is presented to study the learning and revising of causal networks. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that learners’ prior beliefs about the causal relations in a domain affected their hypotheses as they began to infer the co...
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