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You search for concepts and 261,158 records were found.

Qu'est-ce qu'un concept ? Cette question concerne au premier chef ceux qui ont fait du concept une profession : chercheurs dans les diverses sciences, humaines ou non, et travailleurs intellectuels en général. Plus largement, elle exprime cette curiosité naturelle, non dénuée d'inquiétude, à laquelle toute pensée, commune ou savante, semble exposée et qui nous pousse à souhaiter, sans savoir sans doute exactement ce que nous recherchons par là, une détermination plus exacte de ce que nous entendons par " pensée ". Que veut dire pour la pensée que celle-ci, en un certain sens, passe par la mise en œuvre de ce que nous appelons " concepts " ? Quelle est la nature exacte de cette discrimination faite alors entre le conceptuel et le non-conceptuel ? Les concepts, étymologiquement, sont censés nous ménager une prise sur quelque chose. Cette...
When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and evil. These and similar metaphors are not only used to intentionally communicate the meaning of abstract concepts, but also underlie abstract conceptual thought. Several views on the representation of concepts have emerged over the last decennium which all share the idea that conceptual processing is perceptual in nature. According to these grounded approaches to cognition, conceptual thought consists of representations built on concrete sensory information. Even though people cannot directly see, hear or touch abstract concepts, perceptual...
With the recent developments in the C++ language, concepts are mostly discussed as a form of constrained polymorphism. Yet, concepts also allow for an alternative, implementation-independent view that comes from their origin in (algebraic) specification languages. In this paper, we return to this specification view on concepts and formalize C++ concepts as institutions, a well-established notion for precise specifications of software components. We argue that institutions form a suitable theoretical framework for software systems like libraries where the different parts establish relations that are captured by different logics, or no formal logic at all. Assuming the C++ concept descriptions, concept maps, and axioms as in the draft currently accepted by the C++ standardization committee, we show that concept descriptions and axioms...
Generic programming is an indispensable ingredient of modern programming languages. In the C++ programming language, generic programming is implemented by the means of parameterized fragments of code, called templates, in which parameters are constrained by concepts. This thesis consists of seven publications investigating different aspects of generic programming with concepts---formal semantics of the concepts language feature, the mathematical foundations of concepts as a specification tool, change impact analysis of generic libraries, performance-based component composition, and multi-paradigm, multi-language library development. <br></br> Formally specifying the semantics of programming languages is a difficult task, one that is taken up rarely due to its complexity. In this thesis we provide a formal semantics of the separate t...
In this study I examine the theory of essentially contested concepts by W.B. Gallie. Since the publication of Gallie’s seminal article “Essentially Contested Concepts” (1956), the theory of essentially contested concepts has received a wide attention from the theorists of surprising dissimilar positions. Disputes over the actual scope and intent of Gallie’s original theory have sprung forth while other commentators have attempted to revise and reinvent the theory so that the original insight of Gallie could be salvaged; some researchers have rejected the project outright as misguided. The evaluation of these contributions, considerations and criticisms compose the main bulk of the treatise. The central question specifically addressed is, does Gallie’s notion lead to radical and undesirable relativism not originally intended by him? If...
I first argue that standard versions of moral internalism are untenable in light of a type of example that has not previously been considered in metaethical discussions. As a consequence of having unusual views, a good-willed thinker could make moral judgments and recognize moral facts without having a disposition to be motivated to act accordingly (and without believing himself to have reasons for action). Moreover, on a familiar conception of irrationality as incoherence, the thinker in question need not be irrational, and it is not clear that there is a relevant conception of rationality on which he must be irrational. The first part of the paper therefore strengthens some of the most important arguments that have been taken to undermine internalism and support externalism. Next, however, I argue that these arguments seem t...
Electronics and circuit theory are acknowledged as troublesome subjects when first introduced to students. This leads to low student retention into later electronics courses, especially in universities that offer a common first year where students are free to change streams after the first year. We report on a detailed study of the application of Threshold Concept Theory to an introductory electronics course. We identify some Threshold Concepts, explicit and tacit. We postulate that a high density of Threshold Concepts accounts for the reputation for troublesome learning in, and low retention following, these courses. We further suggest that the bimodal distribution of marks that is commonly observed in electronics teaching is a hallmark of a Thresold Concept. This may have significant impact on assessment.
The inferential and eliminative analysis of legal concepts proposed by Alf Ross will be connected to the views of theoretical concepts in science advanced by Frank Ramsey and Rudolf Carnap. Consequently, the mere comprehension of a legal concept will be distinguished from the application of the concept to a particular legal system, since application presupposes a doctrinal commitment, namely, the belief that the inferences constituting the concept hold in that system.
Math Concepts: First Language and Second Language, presented November 4, 2005
General concepts, such as ‘reasonableness’, ‘unconscionable conduct’ and ‘unfairness’, are used in a variety of ways by judges, commentators and in statute. Sometimes, general concepts are merely statements in the nature of a conclusion reached after a process of detailed legal reasoning has taken place. In many cases, however, general concepts themselves play a determinative role in legal analysis, either as an important step in a process of analysis, or else as the sole or central concept determining liability. In such cases, it is of critical importance for the pursuit of open and rational legal reasoning that meaning is given to such concepts. This article explores some of the ways in which general concepts are utilised in legal reasoning and the various ways in which meaning and content can be given to such concepts.
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