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Pressure fields and multidimensional gas flow in permeable char layers and effects on ablation
Comparison of the char yield after occurrence of a flash fire in the pyrolysis gases from various materials indicates that increased char yield appears to be associated with reduced flash-fire propensity for certain types of materials. For certain other materials, flash-fire propensity appears to be independent of char yield. The mechanisms of thermal decomposition and char formation may be more important factors in flash-fire propensity than the quantitative degree of char formation.
Charring ablator char zone nonequilibrium flow and chemical reaction kinetics as function of temperature, using thermal environment simulator
This study showed that copper(II) can be removed from aqueous solution by activated pyrolytic tire char in three mechanistically distinct ways. On the basis of equilibrium studies, the mechanisms involved in the adsorptive removal of copper(II), namely, precipitation, surface adsorption, and pore diffusion, were elucidated. Precipitation of copper(II) resulted from changes in the solution pH to neutral levels. This was attributed to amphoteric zinc oxide on the char surface, formed during production of the pyrolytic char. Surface adsorption was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, which showed a significant increase in copper(II) on the char surface after shaking in the copper solution. This surface adsorption took place despite the relatively low surface area and porosity of the char. However, some cracks and fissu...
Gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed (FB) was modeled based on kinetic data obtained from previously conducted thermo- gravimetic analysis. The thermogravimetric analysis experiments were designed to closely resemble conditions in a real FB gasifier by using high sample heating rates, in situ devolatilization and gas atmospheres of H 2 O / H 2 and CO 2 / CO mixtures. Several char kinetic models were evaluated based on their ability to predict char conversion based on the thermogravimetric data. A modified version of the random pore model was shown to provide good fitting of the char reactivity and suitability for use in a reactor model. An updated FB reactor model which incorporates the newly developed char kinetic expression and a submodel for the estimation of char residence time is presented and results from simulations were c...
Various polymeric materials were evaluated at different temperatures for relative flammability as defined by the HC value, a measure of the concentration of combustibles related to the concentration representing the lower limit of flammability. Flammability generally decreased with increasing char yield. This appears to support the hypothesis that increasing char yield decreases flammability by reducing the probability of reaching the lower flammable limits.
Steam gasification Chemical kinetics Diffusional phenomena Char oxidation Non-isothermal reactions One-film reaction model Syngas yield Coats and Redfern rate law variations Waste-to-energy
Curing epoxy resins with novalac phenolic resins is a feasible approach for increasing intact char of the resin system. Char yields above 40% at 700 C were achieved with epoxy novalac (DEN 438)/novalac phenolic (BRWE 5833) resin systems with or without catalyst such as ethyl tri-phenyl phosphonium iodide. These char yields are comparable to commercially used epoxy resin systems like MY-720/DDS/BF3. Stable prepregs are easily made from a solvent solution of the epoxy/phenolic system and this provides a feasible process for fabrication of same into commercial laminates.
Composites containing carbon and graphite fibers can release fibers into the atmosphere during a fire. This release can potentially cause failure in some types of electrical equipment. Reduced fiber dispersion during and after combustion will reduce risks. Epoxidized char forming systems were synthesized which will react with commercially available surface treated carbon fiber. Fibers modified with these char formers retained adhesion in a specific epoxy matrix resin. Small scale combustion testing indicates that using these char former modified fibers in laminates will help to reduce the dispersement of fibers resulting from exposure to fire without sacrificing resin to fiber adhesion.
Chlorine in char derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) was characterized and quantified based on its water solubility: easily water-soluble, hardly water-soluble, and non-water-soluble chlorine. For that, a four-cycle process of water-washing, heating or carbonation were carried out. In order to confirm the characteristics of non-water-soluble chlorine, additional thermal treatment and an alkali- acid washing process were applied to washed char. It was found that a large particle size of char (0.5 to 1.0 mm) significantly contributed to the amount of non-water-soluble chlorine. Pulverization and HNO_3 HF digestion were performed to identify a factor to interfere chlorine release from char with a large particle size. Pulverization was proven ineffective for release of non-water-soluble chlorine, whereas approximately 32% of non-w...
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