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You search for char and 19,968 records were found.

Managing sludge generated by treating groundwater contaminated with geogenic contaminants (fluoride, arsenic, and iron) is a major issue in developing nations. Their re-use in civil engineering applications is a possible pathway for reducing the impact on the geo-environment. This paper examines the re-use of one such sludge material, namely, fluoride contaminated bone char sludge, as partial replacement for fine aggregate (river-sand) in the manufacture of dense concrete specimens. Bone char sludge is being produced by defluoridation of contaminated groundwater in Nalagonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The impact of admixing 1.5-9% sludge contents on the compression strength and fluoride leaching potential of the sludge admixed concrete (SAC) specimens are examined. The compression strengths of the SAC specimensa re examined w...
Reactions of the silica reinforcement fiber and ablation char of the Apollo heat shield have been investigated by laboratory tests in an arc image furnace (at temperature levels up to 5000 R, pressures up to 0.7 atm, and heat flux similar to reentry) and by an actual reentry test. Microchemical analyses and X-ray diffraction studies have been made to determine the presence of SiC formation in the char. Experimental data and analytical predictions of thermal and density profiles have been compared for the ablation of virgin heat shield and precharred materials to determine the effects of SiC formation on ablation performance. In all analyses, general agreement was found between chemical composition and the thermal predictions for laboratory tests and reentry materials. In all ablated materials, SiC was formed in the front surface of ...
A numerical simulation of the combustion of centimeter-sized char particles in an overfeed fuel bed is presented. One-dimensional mass, species and energy balances for the reading system are solved by finite volume discretization methods to predict operating curves and temperature and concentration profiles for char combustion under a variety of conditions. The simulation is unique in that it employs separate gas and solid phase energy balances with finite-rate CO kinetics and a particle number balance to account for the shrinkage of the char particles as they descend through the bed. All the major energy transport processes, such as particle-to-fluid heat and mass transfer, conduction, convection and radiation, are modelled. The simulation was run for beds of 1-3 cm particles ranging from 30-60 cm in height. The range of air flow rate...
Gasification Char gasification Char kinetics High temperature steam gasification Biomass Syngas production
Plant availability and risk for leaching and/or runoff losses of phosphorus (P) from soils depends among others on P concentration in the soil solution. Water soluble P in soil measures soil solution P concentration. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of wheat residue char (biochar) addition on water soluble P concentration in a wide range of biochar amended soils. Eleven agricultural fields representing dominant soil texture classes of Swedish agricultural lands were chosen. Concentrations of water soluble P in the soils and in biochar were measured prior to biochar incorporation to soils in the laboratory. Experiments with three dominant soil textures- silt loam, clay loam and an intermediate loam soil with different rates of biochar addition (i.e., 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%; w/w) showed that the highest concentration of water...
The burning rate, surface temperature, drag, and extinction conditions of a single char particle moving in a gas are computed numerically. The effects of the size and velocity of the particle and of the temperature and composition of the gas are examined in the framework of a simple model that includes O2 and CO2 heterogeneous reactions and, in some cases, a diffusion-controlled CO oxidation flame in the gas around the particle. In agreement with known results, the burning rate is found to increase with the velocity of the particle when the Reynolds number of the gas flow ceases to be small. The temperature of the particle increases with the temperature and oxygen mass fraction of the gas and is little affected by the size and velocity of the particle, except in the vicinity of extinction. The drag coefficient is a decreasing function ...
Heat-treated animal bone char (ABC) has not previously been evaluated for its potential as a phosphorus (P) fertilizer. ABC, Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR) and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP) were incubated in 12 soils. Dissolved-P was assessed by extraction with NaOH and bioavailability with the Olsen extractant. The rate of P dissolution from ABC was described almost equally well by the Elovich and Power equations. After 145 days, the fraction of P dissolved ranged from 0 to 73% and to 56% for ABC and GPR, respectively. The most important soil properties determining P dissolution from ABC were pH and P sorption. P dissolution was not significant at soil pH > 6.1 (ABC) and > 5 (GPR) and the lower the pH, the greater the Dissolved-P. Dissolved-P also correlated positively and significantly with inorganic P sorption, measured by the ...
This study used Taiwania cryptomerioides Hay as a specimen to be treated with CCA-3 or ACQ-1 preservatives. CCA and ACQ-treated woods, the preservatives themselves as well as their individual ingredients during combustion were investigated. The emission gas concentrations of O_2 and CO_2, the emission contents (CO, SO_2, NO_x), and the temperature of the emission gases were measured using a Flue-gas Analyzer at the exit of a 45° flammability testing cabinet as specified in the continuous emission monitoring (CEM) techniques. The specimens were analyzed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), and were examined in a 45° flammability testing cabinet before and after the analysis. The residual elements in the char were also analyzed using an Elemental Analyzer (EA). The results indicated that the emission gas temperatures of al...
Thermogravimetrically-determined carbon dioxide reactivities of chars formed from New Zealand coals, ranging in rank from lignite to high volatile bituminous, vary from 0.12 to 10.63 mg/h/mg on a dry, ash-free basis. The lowest rank subbituminous coal chars have similar reactivities to the lignite coal chars. Calcium content of the char shows the strongest correlation with reactivity, which increases as the calcium content increases. High calcium per se does not directly imply a high char reactivity. Organically-bound calcium catalyses the conversion of carbon to carbon monoxide in the presence of carbon dioxide, whereas calcium present as discrete minerals in the coal matrix, e.g., calcite, fails to significantly affect reactivity. Catalytic effects of magnesium, iron, sodium and phosphorous are not as obvious, but can be recognised f...
A Chinese woman raised in poverty describes her childhood activities, including recreation at Palama Settlement. Also covered are her housekeeping jobs; match-made marriage; beauty salon business and clientele, including Mainland prostitutes; blackout and martial law; and her children.
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