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Introduction: The tuberculin skin test is one of the most valuable tests for demonstrating tuberculous infection in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children. However, its application is often undermined by difficulties in interpretation of results arising from its low sensitivity and specificity. Objectives: This review aimed to use the concept of induration distribution analysis to estimate the induration size demarcating positive from negative results in a group of children with suspected tuberculosis, and to compare this cut-off with available guidelines for interpretation of the Mantoux test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children. Methods: The results of Mantoux tests of children presenting with suspected tuberculosis over a 12-month period were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a frequency distribution curve. The dis...
Introduction: Quality and pertinence education of human resources; able to adapt to the change in the environment gives, in one of the challenges super education must encourage. The graduates, the investigation, and intellectual production are considered the most important results from the universities. Characterize and consider the results produced by its graduates in the environment, is important for the auto evaluation process of the academic programs and the institutions of superior education. The situations of the graduates a proof of the reaching of the universities goals in its education and mission. The chase of our graduates is an evaluative strategy of curricular character to valve the performance and professional development of the graduates; identify the adecuation degree existing between the education received and the prof...
Molecular genetics is making enormous improvement in identifying major effect genes or quantitative trait loci . However, quantitative genetics still plays an important role on modern animal breeding. Animal models using a single record per lactation assume that environmental effects do not vary through the entire lactation. A test day model permits environmental changes through the lactation. Test day models were developed in Canada and are being used for genetic evaluation in at least two countries. Chile, as a dairy frozen semen importer, uses genetic evaluations done abroad. Although domestic application of such evaluations is limited, it is necessary a minimal understanding of the methodology used in the estimation of breeding values. The objective of this work is to discuss basic aspects of the statistical theory used in test day...
Experiments were conducted in pots to determine the growth effect of different rhizobacteria on maize under Striga hermonthica infestation. Three bacteria were selected based on their plant growth promoting effects. Whole bacterial cells of the rhizobacteria were used to amplify 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each bacterial inoculation increased agronomic characteristics of maize although not always to a statistically significant extent. The extent of growth enhancement differs between the isolates. Enterobacter sakazakii 8MR5 had the ability to stimulate plant growth, however in the PCR study, ACC deaminase was not amplified from this isolate, indicating that not all plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria contain the enzyme ACC deaminase. In contrast, an ACC deaminase spec...
Background: AIDS and Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) severely impair the immune system Cryptosporidium has over the last two decades emerged as a life threatening disease. The study attempts to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in malnourished children with HIV/AIDS. Method: Blood and stool samples of 52 HIV-seropositive children and another 52 HIV-sero-negative children aged 0-5 years were collected and screened for HIV and Cryptosporidium oocysts respectively. The sera were screened by double ELISA and the stool by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method. Results: Out of the 52 HIV-seropositive undernourished, under-five children, none (0%) excreted Cryptosporidium oocyst in their stools while 2 (3.8%) of the control group excreted the oocyst. Conclusion: Cryptosporidium infection seems to be uncommon among undernouri...
Loschian competition is traditionally thought to lead to a spatial equilibrium in which firms enter an industry and disperse across geographic space until each firm earns insufficient excess profit to attract net new entrants. This paper assesses the appropriateness of Loschian analysis using video (movie) rental establishments in Toronto as a case example. The video rental business, as we know it today, began to take shape around 1980 and has since seen much turnover. The paper describes the changing pattern of single-site and chain stores between 1982 and 1999. I use logistic regression to predict the survival of existing establishments. Using survivorship as a proxy for profit, the paper draws conclusions about the extent to which temporal changes in video store location correspond to the tenets of Loschian competition. The coexiste...
The health system in Uganda has undergone a number of changes since independence in 1962 and the PHC concept was a timely innovation, and very welcome in Uganda. And also as a response to the global economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the World Bank and IMF introduced Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) in some developing countries and accordingly a package of reforms was proposed to address problems in the health sector, and these were called health sector reforms (HSR). Both PHC and HSR have faced similar and dissimilar challenges.
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