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A cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) gene from Bacillus sp. TS1-1 was isolated and cloned into Escherichia coli. Starting from TTG codon, there was an open reading frame composed of 2163 bp (721 amino acids). The NH2 terminal position encoded a 46-amino acid of a signal peptide and followed by the mature enzyme (675 amino acids). The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature CGTase from Bacillus sp. TS1-1 exhibited 98.7% homology with 96% identity to the CGTase sequence from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 1-1. The recombinant CGTase of Bacillus sp.TS1-1 expressed in E. coli was successfully purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by alpha-cyclodextrin-bound epoxy- activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The purified CGTase enzymes exhibited a single band with molecular weight of 75 kDa on SDS-PA...
Andrographolide is the main diterpenoid lactone contained in the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. This bioactive component has multifunctional medicinal properties such as activity against fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, inflammation, and sore throat as well as immune disorder. To date, extraction of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata is usually carried out using liquid organic solvent.The extraction was carried out by employing methanol as solvent using standard soxhlet method. Five grams of ground-dried Andrographis paniculata leaves was extracted using 1.50 × 10-4 m3 of methanol at different extraction times. The crude methanolic extracts were then analysed their andrographolide content using high performance liquid chromatography. A mathematical model based on rapid mass transfer at the interphase of the solid-liquid surf...
Enough production of food and fodder are essential for sustainability. In times to come, the population of developed countries might be stabilized, but it will keep on increasing, in developing countries, at the rate of average four per cent. This will warrant utilization of certain carbon rich sources, which are easily available and can effortlessly be converted into food and fodder, rich in protein and other essential nutrients. The production of bioproteins (proteins derived from micro-organisms) by fermentation of cheaper carbon source is one of the most promising breakthrough of biotechnological innovations, which will certainly increase the availability of high quality affordable proteins in the world and reduce dependence on animals. Due to the increasing demand for bioproteins, the efficient strains, substrate and method must b...
Parkia speciosa seeds chemical constituents that were obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) extractions were analysed by Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). The SC-CO2 extraction was conducted at the interaction temperature and pressure of; 313 K/20.68 MPa; 353 K/20.68 MPa; 313 K/55.16 MPa and 353 K/ 55.16 MPa in the regime of 50 minutes extraction time. The analysis of compound was based on percentage of similarity and peak area of more than 75% and 0.1% respectively. Propanoic acid, 3, 3'-thiobis - didodecyl ester was present with highest percentage area in most sample condition. Other main compounds were linoleic acid chloride, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, arachidonic acid, undecanoic acid and 2-Hexyl-1-decanol. Terpenoids compounds of ß-sitosterol and squalene were identif...
In this study, the effects of different sample preparation techniques on the separation of monoclonal antibody IgG1 were investigated experimentally. Monoclonal IgG1 was obtained from hybridoma cell line TB/C3 transfected with bcl-2 carrier plasmid, which was grown in serum-free medium. Three different pre-treatment techniques prior to Protein G affinity chromatography have been used in order to concentrate and partial purify the monoclonal antibody. The pre-treatments researched in this paper are precipitation of the antibody by ammonium sulfate, dilution of the antibody in the binding buffer of affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration through an Amicon Ultra-15 filter with molecular weight cut-off at 100 kDa. Purification through direct application of the antibody onto the Protein G affinity column without pre-treatments was used ...
Weight losses in the thermal decomposition of the decomposed woods have been studied by means of dynamic experiments, carried out under argon atmosphere. The thermal pyrolysis of decomposed woods has been studied from ambient temperature up to 10000C by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA/DTA) analysis. Following an intial plateau region, the decomposed woods rapidly decompose in a narrow temperature range of 300-4000C. After this sharp weight loss, there is a gradual but constant weight loss up to 9000C. The experiment indicates that decomposition occurs in discrete stages of hemicellulose evolution, cellulose decomposition and lignine degradation.
Surface active agents (surfactants) are chemical compounds which are massively used as raw material in detergent production. Synthetic type surfactants are often used because they perform better and are more economical compared to natural detergents. Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS) is one of the synthetic surfactants that is widely used. Although LAS is biodegradable, its introduction to the environment in big amounts harms water bodies. Research on biodegradation of LAS with 100 ppm, 400 ppm, 700 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm concentrations was conducted by using consortium of bacteria comprising of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aglomerans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus alvae. Experiments were carried out for twelve days, at 29oC with initial total inoculum of bacteria at 1,59 x 108 CFU/mL. Results showed that this...
Solvent extraction with hexane has been evaluated for extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds and soybean. Experimentally, the effects of time, temperature and size on the extraction yield were investigated. It was found that oil extraction with hexane has high efficiency, while the extraction yield was affected by extraction time, temperature and size. Reduction in particle size, coarse to powder grinded, had effectively increased the extraction yield by more than 6.4%, whereas an increase in temperature from room temperature to 70oC moderately accelerated the extraction process for both jatropha and soybean. Continuous heating of the oil above boiling point (68oC – 70o) of solvent should be avoided as evaporation and degradation of oils components reduced the extraction yield. The optimum extraction yields obtained for both...
The basic intent of present work is to evaluate the potential of using water diesel emulsion for a compression ignition engine. A comparative analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of the engine has been made with respect to diesel and water diesel emulsion as fuels. A multicylinder diesel engine was run on water diesel emulsion and diesel at a constant speed of 2400rpm under variable load conditions and at 13-mode test cycle. Emulsions of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent by volume of water in diesel were used. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improve the combustion efficiency. The optimum percentage of water in emulsion based on specific fuel consumption and emission characteristics compared to that of diesel fuel operation was 15%.
The objective of this research was to examine the aplication of a fed batch cultivation method to produce PHA by Ralstonia eutropha using hydrolysed sago starch as the main substrate. The results showed that a higher formation and accumulation of PHA could be achieved through fed batch cultivation at the dilution rate of 0.1./h. The fed batch cultivation with feeding of substrate containing only hydrolysed sago starch as carbon source resulted the highest specific product yield of 76.54 % and product (PHA) concentration of 3.72 g/L.
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