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This paper uses polled panel OLS robust estimations with quarterly data for 26 EU countries from the 1980s until 2006, comparing the results of three panels of countries during different time periods. The results obtained confirm the high degree of integration among the EU financial systems and demonstrate not only the quite high degree of openness of the financial markets, but also their indebtedness and the dependence of the EU banking institutions on the financial resources of other countries.
This paper surveys the link between imperfect competition and the effects of fiscal policy on output, employment and welfare. We examine static and dynamic models, with and without entry under a variety of assumptions using a common analytical framework. We find that in general there is a robust relationship between the fiscal multiplier and welfare, the tantalizing possibility of Pareto improving fiscal policy is much more elusive. In general, the mechanisms are supply side, and so welfare improving policy, whilst possible, is not a general result.
A interesterificação das gorduras consiste na troca dos grupos acilo entre os triacilgliceróis, sendo possível alterar a distribuição inicial dos ácidos gordos nos acilgliceróis, e consequentemente, as suas propriedades funcionais, nutricionais e organolépticas. Neste estudo, foi investigado o efeito das altas pressões (i) na cinética da reacção de interesterificação de misturas de gordura, na ausência de solvente, catalisada pelas lipases comerciais imobilizadas de Thermomyces lanuginosa e Rhizomucor miehei (“Lipozyme TL IM“ e “Lipozyme IM“, da Novozymes, Dinamarca, respectivamente) e pela lipase/aciltransferase de Candida parapsilosis na forma imobilizada, bem como (ii) na estabilidade operacional de cada biocatalisador. O meio reaccional consistiu na mistura de estearina de palma (45,5%), óleo de palmiste (45,5%) e um concentrado d...
The mode of action of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (20 mg/l) in fruit thinning of loquat was studied through the action of NAA on both female and male gametophyte of ovules and pollen grains cultured in vitro. Additionally, in vivo treatments with NAA to the panicles of different growth stages were carried out. The flowers of these panicles were observed with fluorescence microscopy in order to evaluate the effect of NAA in the ovule’s development and in the pollen grain germination. In vitro results showed that NAA prevents pollen germination, pollen tube growth and ovule’s development from flowers of panicles in the stage 609-700 BBCH. In vivo, NAA also prevents pollen germination and pollen tube growth for 7 days after the treatment. In flowers near the stage 609 BBCH, NAA interrupts the ovule’s development, resulting in the emergen...
This study is only a small contribution to biodiesel production viability in Portugal. The production of oil seeds has a negative profits and a legal scenario limits the biodiesel production in Portugal. With this study we also demonstrate the ability of Datura stramonium oil to the biodiesel production. Oil seeds had been extracted and its physic chemistry characteristics had also been analysed. Modelling and optimization of the production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) was obtained by transesterification of Datura stramonium crude oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (sodium methoxide), for 30 minutes, following a central composite rotatable design. Lab-scale model validation obtained 71,2% of FAME at 30 minutes reaction time for a temperature of 49,5ºC, molar ratio methanol/oil 1:6 and catalyst concentration 1,8% (v...
Throughout this working paper, under the scope of Prison Reform and Proposals of Prison Reform in Belgium and in Portuguese Prison System, between the periods of 2004 up to 2006, one is driven by the inseparability of Rehabilitative philosophy with Harm Reduction strategies.Whether Belgium, whether Portugal strongly tend to believe that the rehabilitative rationale is a must once speaking of a custodial sentence. Alike, in both countries, it is up to the State to ensure Rehabilitation as an inexorable part of execution of sentences. Overall, both States dismiss of a paternalist approach towards the inmates, namely through the Individual Detention Plan. Nevertheless, in Belgium, Rehabilitation within doors of the offender seems to go hand in hand with the need of doing Reparation towards the victim. Albeit the different political organi...
A subtilisin was identified, characterized and isolated from wheat leaves. In vitro, it has the ability to degrade ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (EC4.1.1.39; rubisco), showing enhanced proteolytic activity towards the oxidized form of the enzyme. During nitrogen starvation, the presence of the active form is confirmed by detection of its autocatalytic products, which are correlated with rubisco degradation. Rubisco proteolysis is detected in both the basal and the tip segments of the stressed wheat leaf blade, which indicates independence from senescence progression. This subtilisin is located in the vicinity of chloroplasts, probably inside vesicles. Plant subtilisins are abundant proteases that exhibit broad substrate specificity. However, they may be induced in particular developmental stages, where they perform specific tasks. ...
Animal nutrition grew to improve productive animal performance among others goals. Several feedstuffs have been used in poultry production and corn has been the major source of energy. Because of economics and productive changes, especially induced by the use of cereals in other industries, there was the need to use others ingredients, such as barley. Besides, an increased stability of the grain and it´s widely distribute around the world, barley has a lower market price. Barley has been suggested to constitute a good substitute of other cereals in avian nutrition. One of the problems in the use of this cereal is the content and localization of antinutritive factors. They are incrusted in cellular wall of small cells that surround the starch grains and difficult the contact of digestive enzymes with this contents. In barley, the major ...
The irrigation management of golf courses has recently become of great importance, mainly in water scarcity conditions. This is due to the increase of water demand in urban areas. The choice of the turf grass is essential for the reduction of water consumption. The main focus of this study is the evaluation of the irrigation systems used in a golf course, located at Oeiras, and the assessment of irrigation water requirements and scheduling strategies to obtain a healthy turf grass. Field assessments provided for the evaluation of the sprinkler irrigation systems, and respective uniformity was estimated. Results have shown that three test areas were classified as uniform, and two other were classified as having sufficient uniformity. The soil water content in different locations was observed under various irrigation schedules: a daily i...
Lycopene is a carotenoid present in high concentration in tomatoes and tomato products, along with lesser amounts of α - carotene and β-carotene. It is found predominantly in the chromoplasts of epicarp. This pigment is the principal component responsible for characteristic deep-red color of tomato and has attracted attention in different fields of research. Lycopene is considered to be a commercially important natural pigment for the emergent market of nutraceutical products due to its function as a health-promoting ingredient. The acyclic structure with 13 double bonds, 11 of which are conjugated, determine its high antioxidant activity. The singlet oxygen-quenching properties of lycopene and, thereby, its ability to trap peroxyl radicals result in the reduction of the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Mo...
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