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There is no doubt that the sharing of information lies at the basis of any collaborative framework. While this is the keen contrivance of social computation paradigms such as ant colonies and neural networks, it also represented the Achilles’ heel of many parallel computation protocols of the eighties. In addition to computational overhead due to the transfer of the information in these protocols, a modern drawback is constituted by intrusions in the communication channels, e.g. spamming in the e-mails, injection of malicious programming codes, or in general attacks on the data communication.While swarm intelligence and connectionist paradigms overcome these drawbacks with a fault tolerant broadcasting of data - any agent has access massively to any message reaching him - in this chapter we discuss within the paradigm of opportunistic ...
La formulazione di dispersioni solide di un principio attivo (API) e un eccipiente idrofilo (carrier) rappresenta un approccio molto studiato per la veicolazione di farmaci poco solubili. Tali sistemi possono essere allestiti secondo metodi riconducibili a operazioni di co-solubilizzazione o di co-fusione, atte a determinare l’instaurarsi di interazioni allo stato solido tra i due componenti in modo da migliorare la velocità di dissoluzione dell’API. Nel caso della co-solubilizzazione API e carrier sono sciolti in un solvente comune, generalmente organico, successivamente allontanato per evaporazione sotto vuoto o mediante spray drying. Nella co-fusione una miscela dei due componenti viene riscaldata fino a fusione degli stessi o comunque fino al raggiungimento ad un opportuno grado di rammollimento. La massa così ottenuta una volta so...
Food industry has an increasing interest for food ingredients with improved technological and nutritional properties: plant proteins, for example, may replace milk and egg proteins in numerous applications. Lupin kernel may provide innovative ingredients, since it has valuable nutritional characteristics, such as useful contents of vitamins and macro/microelements and a protein endowed with satisfactory essential amino acid contents. For its techno-functional properties, lupin can be used as emulsifying and coloring agent, for taste enhancing, water retention, texture improvement, and shell-life extension. In addition, recent literature has reported some useful health benefits related to lupin consumption, such as hypocholesterolemic 1-5, anti-atherogenic 6, and hypotensive 3, 7 activities. With the objecting of investigating the con...
The health promoting properties of fruits and vegetables are strongly related to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals. Tocopherols attract a lot of interest, since they act as antioxidants by trapping radical intermediates, reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tocopherols (T) can exist in four different regioisomers: alfa-T, beta-T, gamma-T, and delta-T, which differ for the methylation pattern of the phenolic ring. The isomers have different activities: alfa-T affects health aspects, while gamma-T has a relevant role in protecting the fatty acids in the seed. In this work, seeds from the main legume crops, i.e. soybean, lupin, chickpea, lentil, bean, pea, and broad bean, were analysed. Finally, a close investigation was performed on white lupin: eight cultivars were sowed in two diffe...
DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES TO HIGHLIGHT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESSING PARAMETERS AND PROTEIN/PEPTIDE INTEGRITY IN LUPIN PROTEINS Sirtori Elena1, Resta Donatella2, Brambilla Francesca1, Arnoldi Anna2 1Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry, Department of Endocrinology, Pathophysiology and Applied Biology, University of Milan, Italy. 2HPF-Nutraceutics, Milan, Italy. elena.sirtori@unimi.it During the last decade functional foods have gained attention from the Food Industry because of their nutraceutical properties and role in the maintenance of good health. Lupin is developing as functional ingredients since it has been shown experimentally to have hypocholesterolemic and hypotensive properties. Since it is known that industrial processing causes protein denaturation and, consequently, a certain degree of pro...
ALLERGENIC REACTIONS TO LUPIN PROTEINS: STUDY OF THE CROSS-REACTIVITY Elena Sirtori1, Harry J. Wichers2, Huub F. J. Savelkoul2, Anna Arnoldi1 1Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry, Department of Endocrinology, Pathophysiology and Applied Biology, University of Milan, Italy. 2Allergy Consortium, Wageningen University and Research Center, Wageningen, The Netherlands. elena.sirtori@unimi.it Some literature information indicates that lupin ingredients, used in pasta and bread products, may provoke severe allergic reactions. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), since lupin flour contains IgE-binding proteins that show in vitro cross-reactivity with peanut, lupin flour could pose a risk to consumers with existing food allergies. Therefore, lupin was added to the EU list of known allergens (Commission ...
About ten years ago the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the health claim on soy foods for the prevention of high cholesterol, confirming the outcomes of numerous clinical studies conducted all over the world. At present, a similar health claim is pending in the European Union. Detailed studies have shown that the proteins have a predominant role in the cholesterol-lowering activity of soy. Since most legume proteins have considerable sequence homology, several groups, including ours, have undertaken studies on these vegetables. The most investigated are bean (a term indicating several species of the genera Phaseolus and Vigna), pea, faba bean, chickpea and lupin. Numerous experimental studies in different animal models and a few clinical studies are available, which have indicated interesting pharmacological activities, agai...
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