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The white wax-scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, has recently increased in numbers and distribution in some Easy-peel (Citrus reticulata (Blanco)) orchards in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. A study was conducted to investigate its morphology and biology. Characteristics of the immature and adult females are described and illustrated from field-collected and slide-mounted specimens. A key to the different stages is provided. The biology of C. destructor is briefly described. Morphometric characteristics useful for separating the stages are discussed.
The development time, survival and fecundity of Amblyseius californicus (McGregor), a predatory mite in deciduous fruit orchards, were determined at 20, 25 and 30°C. Using these values the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)), mean generation time (T) and net replacement rate (R0) were estimated at the respective temperatures. In addition, the data were used to estimate the minimum temperature required for development. The r(m) increased with increasing temperature from 0.122 at 20°C to 0.251 at 30°C. The R0 was highest at 25°C (11.18 females/female) and was lower at 20°C (9.71 females/female) than at 30°C (10.54 females/female), while T decreased with increasing temperature from 20.11 days at 20°C to 10.20 days at 30°C. The estimated minimum temperature for development was 8.3°C, which indicates that A. californicus could survive the win...
The genera Houtbayana Linnavuori, based on H. decemnotata (Naude), and Capeolix Linnavuori, based on C. picturatus Linnavuori, as well as Pachodus filigranus Linnavuori are redescribed and illustrated. Capeolix auritus, Dagama biforcipata and Korana zula are new species. H. decemnotata is synonymized with H. orosioides Linnavuori.
Eggs, larvae and pupae of Somaticus angulatus (Fahraeus) were reared at different tempera lures. The relationship between temperature and duration of all developmental stages was determined. The lower threshold temperatures for embryonic, larval and pupal development were 11.5, 11.0 to 15.4 (depending on the instar) and 14.8 °C, respectively. The temperatures required to complete embryonic, larval (pupation at the seventh instar) and pupal development were 196.6, 1038.5 and 148.0 degree days respectively.
The article describes the process of communication in a welfare organisation. Different aspects of communication as a management activity are discussed which can enhance communication between personnel in a welfare organisation. These aspects are: the definitions, purpose, contents, structures and media and aids of communication in an organisation. The focus of the study is on the utilisation of communication media and aids by social workers in a welfare organisation to improve service delivery to the users and to enhance the communication process in a welfare organisation.
This article advances the argument that a diagnosis with HIV is inappropriately regarded as traumatic and that to a large extent the shift in diagnostic criteria from the DSM-III-R to the DSM-IV has played a role in the expanding definition of what might be regarded as a traumatic event. The notion of conceptual bracket creep is offered to account for the ever-increasing number of events that may qualify as traumatic. The article concludes that persons diagnosed with HIV require help in living with their condition, accessing treatment, and dealing with social stigma instead of being regarded as traumatised.
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