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The significance of the domestic pig, Sus scrofa, to prehistoric Polynesians is hinted at by its inclusion among the species that they transported with them as they colonized Oceania. However, archaeological data reveal a pattern of pig distribution far more extensive in prehistory than at historic contact. Domestic mammal extirpation is a phenomenon apparently unique to prehistoric Polynesia. Although well recognized, the local extinction of domestic pigs in Polynesia prior to European contact has yet to be satisfactorily explained. Earlier accounts attributed the patchy distribution of pigs across the Island South Pacific to intentional extermination by their Polynesian keepers. More recent approaches seek to understand the disappearance of these animals within a biogeographic and ecological framework. Here, I test the hypothesis tha...
Type X is one of four Post-Lapita pottery styles reported from Huon Peninsula and the Siassi Islands of Papua New Guinea. Previous petrographic work was inconclusive about its likely area of origin but indicated a possible Huon Peninsula source. Renewed analysis of a larger sample supports this conclusion and confirms the use of grog temper. This kind of temper is otherwise not recorded in the New Guinea region, and its use in the production of Type X was probably culturally driven. Comparisons between Type X and grog-tempered pottery from Palau, Yap, and Pohnpei in Micronesia lead to the suggestion that Type X probably derived from an otherwise unrecorded contact between Huon Peninsula and Palau about 1000 years ago. The article reviews other evidence for interaction between the New Guinea-Bismarck Archipelago region and various parts...
This paper undertakes a major survey of the genus Sus from Island Southeast Asia and specifically attempts to re-examine the taxonomic status of the pigs of Wallacea, in order to re-evaluate the complex evidence for human mediated dispersal. This was undertaken using the combined approach of tooth outline and mitochondrial DNA analysis. The data provide clear evidence for three dispersal events: The first involved domesticated pigs, originating from wild Sus scroJa stock in mainland Southeast Asia, being introduced to the Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Mollucas, New Guinea, and Oceania. Archaeological specimens clearly link these pigs with the Lapita and subsequent Polynesian dispersals. Since the pigs on New Guinea are specifically linked with this dispersal, it follows that the current wild populations of the island must be...
Archaeological excavations at the coast of A'asu, in Tutuila Island of American Samoa, exposed a depositional sequence spanning the past circa 700 years. With the period represented, sedimentation rates exceeded 10.15 cm per century in the valley floor and 16.34 cm per century along the valley margin. The occupational history may correlate with changes in climate, sea level, and coastal geomorphology. Although the evidence accords with the expected responses to the Little Climatic Optimum (circa 1050 to 690 B.P.) and Little Ice Age (circa 575 to 150 B.P.), the most plausible explanation for the A'asu case is that environmental change accompanied expansion of upland land use. Based on evidence here and elsewhere in Tutuila, it is proposed that the establishment of fortifications, monuments and permanent settlements in the uplands was pa...
The Ala Wai Canal is a long, narrow, man-made estuary located in the Waikiki district of Honolulu, Hawaii. Because of its proximity to a densely populated urban resort area, it is of considerable interest as a recreational facility. The present study of the Ala Wai Canal presents a detailed description of the physical-chemical parameters of temperature, oxygen, and salinity with regard to their horizontal, vertical, and seasonal distribution in the waters of the Canal. These parameters are in turn used to evaluate the distribution and species composition of the various marine organisms of recreational value and their associated food species. The results of this study provide the baseline data for management recommendations to increase the recreational value of the Canal to the people of Hawaii.
In recent years, several pesticide-related contaminants have been detected in the basal waters of southern and central O'ahu aquifers. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) and ethylene dibromide (EDB), two soil fumigants which were previously used by pineapple growers in southern and central O'ahu, have been discovered in several wells in the area. A third contaminant, trichloropropane (TCP), which is an impurity of the soil fumigant DD, has also been detected in a number of wells. DBCP, EDB, and TCP are of particular concern to state public health officials due to the known and possible unknown health effects associated with these compounds. This is especially true for the Pearl Harbor Aquifer, which is the major potable water source for Honolulu. Thus, it is imperative to have an understanding of the extent and movement of the contamination. ...
The research reported herein was funded by the Board of Water Supply and the Department of Public Works, City and County of Honolulu, and was conducted with the cooperation of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and the Oahu Sugar Company.
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