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Heterogeneous photocatalysis over TiO2 using the sunlight seems to be a promising technology for waste-water treatment and drinking water production. However, the overall efficiency of TiO2 under natural sunlight is limited to the UV-driven activity (λ < 400 nm), accounting only to ~ 4% of the incoming solar energy on the Earth's surface. The increase of the TiO2 absorption towards wavelengths more abundant on the planet's surface has, thus become recently an interesting challenge. In this framework, the main objective of this work was to study the modification of TiO2 by non metallic doping (N and S) in order to increase its light absorption in the visible region (45% of the light hitting the terrestrial surface). Commercial TiO2 powders were doped by a simple preparation method consisting of manual grinding them with a N or S precurs...
Nowadays thin films play an important role in everyday life and in industries. Thin film technology has been developed primarily for the growing demand for development of smaller and smaller devices that require advanced materials and new processing techniques suitable for micro and nano technology. One of the methods of producing thin films is by means of plasma technology. This is a technique by which plasma, also known as 'the fourth state of matter', is used to generate ions, electrons and radicals which deposit at a surface where they will form a thin film. The source of these depositing species could be either gaseous, liquid or solid in origin. Most of the time a plasma is generated by means of an electrical discharge. Plasma technologies are used for ...
Engineers rely on efficient simulations that provide them with reliable data in order to make proper engineering design decisions. The purpose of this thesis is to design adaptive numerical methods for multiscale problems in this spirit. We consider elliptic homogenization problems discretized by the finite element heterogeneous multiscale method (FE-HMM). Unlike standard (single-scale) finite element methods, our multiscale discretization scheme relies on coupled macro and micro finite elements. The framework of the HMM allows to design an algorithm that follows the classical finite element structure on the macro level. The fine scales of the multiscale problems are taken into account by replacing the element-wise numerical integration over unknown macroscop...
In the first place the behavior of (online) traders on markets is analyzed and modeled, and it is shown that the average investor behaves as a mean-variance optimizer in finance. Within this description, transaction costs play a key role in explaining observed investment patterns and in particular an important uncovered relation between average investment and portfolio value. As online investors take into account transaction costs in their investment strategy, they are also sensitive to high portfolio rebalancing costs. Solutions to avoid high portfolio turnovers are investigated: first in the one-dimensional case, where it is shown that estimators with minimal-dispersion improve both the accuracy and the variance of volatility and Value-at-Risk forecasts; se...
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