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This paper highlights the inadequacy of existing research for the purposes of evidence-based PRN (Latin, pro re nata or 'as needed') medication practice in psychiatric settings and notes the absence of relevant evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and policies, both nationally and internationally. The professional, ethical and legal importance of PRN medication practices is also discussed, and shown to add to the urgency of developing a research agenda which will serve as an adequate basis for good clinical practice. This paper summarises the relevant research and identifies problems that can arise for clinicians involved in the administration of PRN medications in mental health settings. It concludes by highlighting key issues which urgently require empirical investigation.
Increasing community resilience to the bushfire hazard through raising awareness and increasing preparedness for bushfire is a crucial step towards reducing the impact of a bushfire event. The case study presented in this paper investigates the attitudes, expectations and needs of a community in north Queensland in regard to the bushfire risk in their area. Understanding these social aspects, and the community itself, can lead to better delivery of bushfire services, and thereby increase community resiliency. The findings from the case study present a number of implications for bushfire service delivery in the area.
[Extract] Tracking animals provides a detailed picture of their behaviour and can be important in understanding their ecology. Tracking is especially useful for elucidating the ecology of animals that are cryptic during all or parts of their life cycle (Heyer et al. 1994; Langkilde and Alford 2002; Reynolds and Riley 2002). Amphibians, for example, can be hard to study outside breeding aggregations, and wildlife telemetry can provide insight on otherwise unknown aspects of their biology (Heyer et al. 1994; Naef-Daenzer 1993; Naef-Daenzer et al. 2005; Rowley and Alford 2007a, b, c; Rowley et al. 2007).
This article considers some of the implications for social welfare of bundling in the Australian telecommunications industry. The practice of bundling—offering two or more products for sale as a single package—is a strategy used in many industries. Although common, there are circumstances when the practice can be used anti-competitively. Yet bundling does not always harm consumers; at times, the practice benefits both consumers and producers, and it can even advantage consumers to the detriment of producers. The general literature on bundling suggests that its effect on social welfare depends on several factors such as market structure, the elasticity of demand for the products, the marginal cost of production, economies of distribution and the use of complex menus. We consider these factors when assessing the likely welfare effects of...
Although managers consider accurate, timely, and relevant information as critical to the quality of their decisions, evidence of large variations in data quality abounds. This research developed and tested a model of factors influencing the level of data quality within an organisation. The model was tested using data collected from a data quality survey and interviews with senior managers. The results indicated that management commitment to data quality and the presence of data quality champions strongly influence data quality in the organisation. Interview responses indicated the managers of the participating organisation are committed to achieving and maintaining high data quality. Interviews with the managers revealed that changing work processes and establishing a data quality awareness culture are required to motivate further imp...
Agricultural trade between Australia and China has increased significantly in recent years and the momentum is likely to continue. However, concerns exist in both countries over the likely negative impacts of the increased agricultural trade on their domestic industries. This paper examines agricultural trade patterns between Australian and China and addresses the question as to whether agricultural trade between them is competitive or complementary. Our study shows that agricultural trade between the two countries is set to further increase and there is a high level of agricultural trade complementarity between the two countries. Increased agricultural trade is unlikely to generate much negative impacts on their agricultural sectors as a whole, although producers in some industries may be adversely affected to some extent. In general,...
The social construction of risk explains that public perceptions of an objective hazard are often shaped through social and cultural processes. Hazard managers tend to focus on the objective risk, and as a result can often perceive a risk and related issues very differently to the community they are servicing. This has important implications for hazard management. This paper reports on research that investigated similarities and differences in perceptions of community bushfire risk and issues between the community and fire services in Tamborine Mountain in Queensland Australia. It discusses the implications for bushfire service delivery, and also provides an example of how understanding bushfire hazard perceptions and other issues within a community can give direction to locally-specific strategies targeting community safety.
The recent frequency and intensity of crises and disasters affecting the tourism industry has resulted in a growing body of research into their causes, effects and management, as the bibliographies of the ensuing papers catalogue. To date, most papers and collections of research have taken a broad approach, describing the origins of a particular event which triggered a tourism crises, followed by an examination of the differential effects of the crisis on local residents, staff, tourists and tourism organizations or the environment and infrastructure. They have also discussed rescue efforts and the complexity of management tasks in the immediate aftermath of an event, often pointing to the need for preplanning to mitigate the consequences of any future disaster. Other researchers have contributed directly to the academic debate about h...
Purpose of the research/paper: There are three key concerns for the home-based business sector: viability; sustainability; and the potential for growth. Major indicative studies are used to discuss available evidence. Findings: There is general agreement that this sector is growing. Varying views exist on the capability of home-based businesses to generate employment. Studies of performance of home-based business and the relationship of financial and non-financial matters to performance have received little attention. There has been some identification of factors associated with size and profitability. Research into the relationship between home and business has focused on the effect of the family on the business. Implications for practice: Research to date suggests there is a strong need to develop an overall framework for appropr...
War and nursing are linked unequivocally. As battles have raged over the centuries, nurses have attended the ill and wounded soldiers, nursing them back to health or into death and the study of this phenomenon forms a significant part of Australia's nursing history. However, a review of the Australian scholarly nursing and military history literature revealed that the experiences of Australian nurses in the Vietnam War has not been widely published. In an attempt to redress this gap in Australian nursing and military history, the aim of this study was to analyse the nature of the nursing work in the Vietnam War, and to increase awareness and understanding of the experience of nurses in the war within the nursing profession. Using oral history interviews, this study investigated the nature of nursing work as experienced by 17 Austra...
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