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In this thesis, different aspects on ligand dependent regioselectivity in palladium mediated allylic alkylation have been studied. It is believed that the regioselectivity is a result of nucleophilic attack trans to phosphorous when applying ligands wih different donor atoms. The regioselective memory effect (regioretention) was studied in cationic systems utilizing a non-chiral P,N-ligand. The experimental findings showed only a small memory effect arising from the preferred attack of the nucleophile on the allylic moiety trans to phosphorous in the ligand. The reason for the low regioretention in the reaction was shown to be due to an anion assisted apparent rotation of the η3-allyl intermediate. To minimize the dynamic processes, such as apparent rotation, pre-formed (η3-allyl)Pd complexes containing a tethered ligand and an auxi...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are tissue-specific inflammatory diseases of the central and the peripheral nervous system, respectively. A contemporary analysis infers that these are complex autoimmune disorders. Issues remaining to be solved are the factors determining susceptibility and the extreme variability in severity displayed by these diseases. The present study examines whether this variability is related to a basal function of the innate immune defence, regulating the intensity of inflammation. The severity of MS and GBS were evaluated by standard scoring systems, the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score and the Medical Research Council Score. In addition, hard endpoints such as the need for intensive care unit treatment and the time to independent walking were used in the GBS, which was also evalu...
When facing the opportunity to allocate resources between oneself and others, individuals may experience a self-control conflict between urges to act selfishly and preferences to act pro-socially. We explore the domain of conditional cooperation, and we test the hypothesis that increased expectations about others’ average contribution increases own contributions to public goods more when self-control is high than when it is low. We pair a subtle framing technique with a public goods experiment. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find that conditionally cooperative behavior is stronger (i.e., less imperfect) when expectations of high contributions are accompanied by high levels of self-control.
The main aims of this thesis on the pedagogical quality in preschool are: to define and describe a pedagogical concept of quality; to explore how quality is experienced and valued from different perspectives; to find out what characterises a pedagogical environment of high quality; and to discuss how those characteristics can be used to improve the quality of preschool. The thesis comprises four studies, a meta-perspective of the results of these and a theoretical framework. Two studies were part of a project, which aimed to improve the pedagogical quality in 20 preschools. The use of both external and self-evaluations of quality with ECERS gave an opportunity to compare these evaluations with one another as well as using the results to plan the content of a targeted development programme. In the third study, three preschools evaluated...
The general aim of this thesis is to reach a more insightful understanding of how help is actually worked out in the everyday life of older people when they can no longer manage on their own. The overall research question is how individuals, representing different perspectives in the help arrangement process, think and act in order to organise needed help as well as how they may themselves apprehend the functions of the help. It is a qualitative study, containing four papers looking at this issue from different perspectives: the older persons themselves, their next of kin who provide help and the municipal care managers who make decisions on formal help. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews and participant observations with care managers, qualitative interviews with older people applying for formal eldercare, follo...
Sammanfattning Månsson E (2008) Att skapa sig en känsla av sammanhang – om hälsofrämjande strategier bland lärare. Arbete och Hälsa 2008;42:5 Avsikten med denna studie var att analysera förhållningssätt i problemfyllda situationer hos lärare som upplevde sig må bra. Syftet var att undersöka på vilket sätt och varför strategierna var hälsofrämjande. Intervjuer genomfördes med tjugotre psykiskt välmående lärare om deras arbetsförhållanden, arbetsinnehåll, uppfattning om ledarskapet, kollegorna och eleverna. Intervjuerna bandinspelades, transkriberades och kodades. Kodningen utgick från tre hälsorelaterade teorier, locus of control, KASAM och coping. I problemsituationer utgjorde alla tre begreppen delar i en process som medförde att en känsla av sammanhang återskapades gång på gång. Upplevelsen av att kunna påverka sin livssituation tyck...
Using unique survey data from the Russian industrial city Taganrog in 1989 and 1998, we analyse changes in the gender division of labour among gainfully employed women and men, pre- and post-transition. In Soviet Taganrog, dual earner families predominated, but nevertheless men were usually primary earners, while women did the bulk of housework. After transition, contrary to early predictions, aggregate female and male employment rates have declined to a similar extent but the time-use data indicate increased gender specialisation among the employed .Thus, the dual earner norm mainly remains but the pre-existing gender difference within it has increased considerably, particularly among couples with pre-school children.
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