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The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have led to systems wherein increases in process efficiency could be obtained using reagents which can transport both a transition metal cation and its attendant anion(s), and the potential advantages of metal salt extractants are discussed. The problems encountered when trying to extract hydrophilic anions selectively into organic media are also considered. Chapter 2 d...
Volz argues that the task of ethics can no longer be limited to the familiar questions of moral theory in the age of modernity: the questions of morality or right conduct for the autonomous individual (Volz, 1993; Kiesel and Volz, 2004). This is the framework that has formed the conventional ethics of social work as an individual therapy. Social work, Volz proposes, should now address itself to the task of enabling the individual to choose and live a life as a member of a specific cultural community, who at least potentially possesses a full and specific conception of the good life particular to his biography and socio-cultural circumstances (Volz, 2003). Such a move would recover the classical quest of philosophical ethics: for the good life and human flourishing. Volz proposes that the ‘heart of social work’ should be a ‘Lebensführun...
Numerical and experimental investigations of tidal current energy extraction have been conducted in this study. A laboratory-scale water flume was simulated using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. In the numerical model, the tidal current turbine is represented with an actuator disk, which produces a pressure drop associated with energy loss. The free water surface is considered in the model using a volume of fluid method and is allowed to deform freely. Numerical results identified that a localised wake is formed behind the tidal current turbine and there is considerable localised flow acceleration around and most especially, under the energy extraction device. A free water surface drop is visualised in the model results due to the energy extraction and this free surface drop is believed to have an impact on t...
Infertility is a serious personal, social and public health issue in developing countries such as Malawi. Infertility is often a ‘hidden’ problem in this context as the policy and service emphasis is on issues like infant mortality and family planning. Social expectations can also contribute to the problem. This research briefing reports on the first in-depth qualitative study of infertility in Malawi. These findings aim to form a starting point for development of services and programs that are based on people’s own views, local needs and go beyond family planning.
This briefing outlines some findings about current parenting practices and support for parents in Scotland from the Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) study. It also puts the GUS data in the context of the literature around parenting. Although it talks about ‘parents’, in many households mothers are more involved with the everyday care of children than fathers. These findings were originally presented to the GUS annual conference earlier this year.
Older women, like younger women, experience domestic violence in large numbers and suffer significant physical, emotional and social consequences. Because of existing attitudes about women and age, these older women have been virtually invisible in policy and service provision. This briefing outlines findings of two projects that aim to address older women’s invisibility, and start to develop a picture of what effective support for them might look like.
The promise of devolution was ‘to do politics differently’ by creating a more plural, consensual and participative political landscape. In this context, it might be expected that post-devolution Scotland would provide a fertile environment for fostering innovation in family policy-making. This study explores the role of civil society in family policy-making in postdevolution Scotland, investigating who influences the family policy agenda and how political activity by civil society impacts on government policy. This briefing details some of these findings and examines the role different groups played in the development of the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006.
Increasing numbers of couples live together and have children without being married. Those who argue for greater protection for financially vulnerable cohabitants invoke evidence that suggests that modern cohabitations are often just like marriages and should be treated as such by law. In social security legislation, the cohabitation or living together as husband and wife rule treats cohabiting couples who claim means-tested benefits as if they are married. However, this may not provide protection for financially vulnerable cohabitants who are not necessarily in the same circumstances as married couples. Drawing on research with men and women who have had relevant personal experience of ‘the cohabitation rule’, this briefing identifies problems with its underlying assumptions about unmarried couples’ relationships and their financial s...
In the last two decades western societies have witnessed a new-found social and political interest in the promotion of breastfeeding. Scotland has recently passed legislation to make breastfeeding in public a right. However, breastfeeding remains controversial, and many mothers find it difficult or are reluctant to breastfeed. Research shows that breastfeeding is beneficial for babies and so is an important component in tackling health inequalities. This briefing outlines some of the key findings of a research project that investigated the impact of advice on increased take-up of breastfeeding among mothers in Scotland. It was based on the analysis of data derived from the Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) early years longitudinal study funded by the Scottish Government.
Consulting those who use children’s services, both parents and children, has become a much more common approach to improving children’s services. This research briefing reports on some key findings of a consultation undertaken in the local authority area of South Ayrshire in Scotland, to find out about how to conduct such consultations and which methods to use. The consultation included those who use services, including children and young people and their parents, and staff providing a range of services in health, social work, education and voluntary organisations. The research was commissioned jointly by the local authority and local health board.
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