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The main aims were to: explore whether there is a relation between doctors’ ability to identify patients’ worry and wish for information and self-efficacy with regard to communicating with patients about difficult matters; describe which cues doctors consider when estimating patients’ worry and wish for information, and investigate whether there is a relation between patients’ satisfaction with doctors’ care and patients’ psychosocial function. Eleven doctors and 69 patients (of which 36 patients participated in the longitudinal study) with carcinoid tumours participated. Doctors’ self-efficacy, and ability to identify patients’ worry/wish for information were investigated at patients’ first admission. Doctors were interviewed about which cues they considered when estimating patients worry/wish for information. Patients’ satisfaction w...
Hur ska vi förstå Bergslagens som region? Mystiskt, folkligt och kreativt har regionen nyligen karakteriserats. Ibland talas om "bruksandan" och om en region med stora svårigheter att förnya sig. Stämmer detta? Forskare från en rad discipliner vid Bergslagens lärosäten delar här med sig av sina forskningsresultat om regionen.
Crystallization of C60 and C70 from organic solution often leads to the formation of new solvates and other fullerene compounds. In the present thesis, a number of such solvates were obtained and their phase transitions studied using in situ "in solution" techniques. New fullerene materials can be also obtained using High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) treatment. The formation of C60 polymers in thin films and bulk samples has been studied in situ over a wide pressure-temperature range. New methods for single-crystal growth of fullerenes and their compounds have been developed. It was found by in situ "in solution" XRD and Raman spectroscopy that solvate C60 crystals with benzene, toluene and hexane are stable only in equilibrium with their solution. Their melting points coincide with the maximum in the temperature dependence ...
The glycaemic responses to various carbohydrate-rich foods are partly dependent on the rate at which the carbohydrate is digested and absorbed. The glycaemic index (GI) is a way of ranking foods according to their glycaemic response and is recommended as a useful tool in identifying starch-rich foods that give the most favourable glycaemic response. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether carbohydrate-rich foods with a low GI and a high content of dietary fibre (DF) could have beneficial metabolic effects in the insulin resistance syndrome. This question was addressed both in single-meal studies and in randomised controlled clinical trials. Starch-rich foods with low GI values incorporated into composite meals resulted in lower postprandial responses of both glucose and insulin than foods with a high GI in meals with an ...
The primary aim of this thesis is to highlight the most important features of driving and to describe the models that have attempted to conceptualise these features. The discussion focuses on the concept of "safety margin." The concept is elaborated upon in an effort to enhance its usefulness as an empirical tool in traffic research. In this study, safety margin is defined as a threshold value that informs the driver when to undertake an action to minimise the risk of a car accident. Three separate studies of various driver behaviours are presented as illustrations of how this view can be applied in a real highway traffic setting. One study (Study I), consisting of three independent but related experiments, examines car following; a second study (Study II) explores gap acceptance at a T-crossing; and a third study (Study III) investiga...
In today’s society there is an increasing need for energy, an increase which for the most part is supplied by the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuel resources are limited and their use has harmful effects on the environment, therefore the development of technologies that produce clean energy sources is very appealing. Natural photosynthesis is capable of converting solar energy into chemical energy through a series of efficient energy and electron transfer reactions with water as the only electron source. Thus, constructing an artificial system that uses the same principles to convert sunlight into electricity or storable fuels like hydrogen is one of the major forces driving artificial photosynthesis research. This thesis describes supramolecular complexes with the intention of mimicking the electron transfer reactions of the donor side...
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide of glycosaminoglycan type composed of alternating hexuronic acid [either glucuronic acid (GlcA) or iduronic acid (IdoA)] and glucosamine (GlcN) units that can be sulfated in various positions. HS binds to a large number of proteins and these interactions promote many biological processes, including cell adhesion and growth factor signaling. This thesis deals with the structural analysis of short heparan sulfate sequences that mediate binding to fibroblast growth factors FGF1 and FGF2, their receptor FGFR4, and the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin. Both FGF1 and FGF2 were shown to interact with N-sulfated hexa- and octasaccharide fragments isolated from HS. A pool of HS fragments depleted for FGF1 binding retained the ability to bind FGF2. Changes in 6-O sulfation affected binding to FGF1 but no...
A large amount of non-protein nitrogen, in the form of urea and ammonium, is present in human breastmilk; however its physiological role in the infant is as yet not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that an insufficient enteric metabolism of urea could play a role in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This thesis was undertaken to study the enteric metabolism of non- protein nitrogen in healthy infants, in comparison with those who had succumbed to SIDS. Aerobic and anaerobic faecal microflora, were studied in healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age. They were found to appear in faeces within 3 days of birth and were present throughout the first 6 months of life. The effect of nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide on faecal urease activity was investigated and found to be inhibitory in action. The sigmoid faecal urea...
Understanding the processes that shape the spatial distribution of genetic variation within species is central to the evolutionary study of diversification and demography. Neutral genetic variation reflects past demographic events as well as current demographic characteristics of populations, and the correct interpretation of genetic data requires that the relative impact of these forces can be identified. Details of breeding systems can affect the genetic structure through effects on effective migration rate or on effective population size. Restrictions in recombination rate lead to associations between neutral marker genes and genes under natural selection. Although the effects on genetic structure can be substantial, the process will often be difficult to tell apart from stochastic effects of history or genetic drift, which may sugg...
Antitumour properties of the cyanoguanidine CHS 828 and analogues were discovered in 1997. CHS 828 is presently in clinical phase I/II trials. This thesis encompasses in vitro studies of the kinetics and mode of cell death induced in the human cell line U-937 GTB, by CHS 828 and the standard antitumour drug etoposide. Etoposide induces apoptosis in U-937 GTB within 4 h. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology, including condensed and fragmented nuclei and formation of apoptotic bodies, activation of caspase 3 and 8, and DNA fragmentation, visualised by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL). CHS 828 induced few and weak signs of apoptosis. Metabolic activity was the only parameter affected during the first 24 h of exposure. After ~30 h, proliferation (DNA synthesis) and protein synthesis ceased, and viability started to decrease...
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