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To address the policy malfunctions of the recent past and present, UK food policy needs to link policy areas that in the past have been dealt with in a disparate manner, and to draw on a new ecological public health approach. This will need a shift within the dominant trade liberalization–national economic competitiveness paradigm that currently informs UK food policy, and the international levels of the EU and the WTO trade rules, and grants the large corporate players in the food system a favoured place at the policy–making tables. The contradictions of the food system have wrought crises that have engendered widespread institutional change at all levels of governance. Recent institutional reforms to UK food policy, such as the FSA and DEFRA, reflect a bounded approach to policy integration. Initiatives seeking a more integrated appr...
Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed four overlapping phases with a London focus: (1) a systemized review of the literature, (2) analysis of health authority Health Improvement Plans (HImPs) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) local implementation plans and Health Action Zone reports, (3) a scoping exercise of`food projects' and community-based participatory projects with a food focus using food databases and directories, and (4) 29 in-depth interviews with individuals responsible for commissioning and running projects. Results: ...
In this paper we present empirical results and speculative analysis based on observations collected over a two month period from studies with two high interaction honeynets, deployed in a corporate and an SME (small to medium enterprise) environment, and a distributed honeypots deployment. All three networks contain a mixture of Windows and Linux hosts. We detail the architecture of the deployment and results of comparing the observations from the three environments. We analyze in detail the times between attacks on different hosts, operating systems, networks or geographical location. Even though results from honeynet deployments are reported often in the literature, this paper provides novel results analyzing traffic from three different types of networks and some initial exploratory models. This research aims to contribute to endeav...
Fault tolerance via design diversity is often the only viable way of achieving sufficient dependability levels when using off-the-shelf components. We have reported previously on studies with bug reports of four open-source and commercial off-the-shelf database servers and later release of two of them. The results were very promising for designers of fault-tolerant solutions that wish to employ diverse servers: very few bugs caused failures in more than one server and none caused failure in more than two. In this paper we offer details of two approaches we have studied to construct reliability growth models for a 1-out-of-2 fault-tolerant server which utilize the bug reports. The models presented are of practical significance to system designers wishing to employ diversity with off-the-shelf components since often the bug reports are t...
One of the key benefits of using intrusion-tolerant systems is the possibility of ensuring correct behavior in the presence of attacks and intrusions. These security gains are directly dependent on the components exhibiting failure diversity. To what extent failure diversity is observed in practical deployment depends on how diverse are the components that constitute the system. In this paper we present a study with operating systems (OS) vulnerability data from the NIST National Vulnerability Database. We have analyzed the vulnerabilities of 11 different OSes over a period of roughly 15 years, to check how many of these vulnerabilities occur in more than one OS. We found this number to be low for several combinations of OSes. Hence, our analysis provides a strong indication that building a system with diverse OSes may be a useful tech...
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