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Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a key role in thrombus dissolution and plasma levels of tPA have been associated with cardiovascular disease. We have previously resequenced regulatory and coding regions of the human tPA gene (PLAT) and identified eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a small experimental study, four common variants were associated with invasively determined vascular tPA release rates. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is an association between genetic variants at this locus and plasma levels of tPA. To this end, 240 Swedish individuals without cardiovascular disease were typed for the eight SNPs and an Alu insertion polymorphism at the PLAT locus, as well as for a polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter (PAI-1 -675 4G>5G). Stepwise...
Reynolds' abstraction theorem shows how a typing judgement in System F can be translated into a relational statement (in second order predicate logic) about inhabitants of the type. We obtain a similar result for pure type systems: for any PTS used as a programming language, there is a PTS that can be used as a logic for parametricity. Types in the source PTS are translated to relations (expressed as types) in the target. Similarly, values of a given type are translated to proofs that the values satisfy the relational interpretation. We extend the result to inductive families. We also show that the assumption that every term satisfies the parametricity condition generated by its type is consistent with the generated logic. Our proof gives a computationally meaningful way to interpret that assumption.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of working memory load on drivers' responses to a suddenly braking lead vehicle and whether this effect (if any) is moderated by repeated scenario exposure. Background: Several experimental studies have found delayed braking responses to lead vehicle braking events during concurrent performance of nonvisual, working memory-loading tasks, such as hands-free phone conversation. However, the common use of repeated, and hence somewhat expected, braking events may undermine the generalizability of these results to naturalistic, unexpected, emergency braking scenarios. Method: A critical lead vehicle braking scenario was implemented in a fixed-based simulator. The effects of working memory load and repeated scenario exposure on braking performance were examined. Results:...
Europe's agricultural land (including Ukraine) comprise of 164 million hectares of cultivated land and 76 million hectares of permanent pasture. A "food first" paradigm was applied in the estimations of land potentially available for the production of biofuel feedstocks, without putting at risk food supply or nature conservation. Three land conversion scenarios were formulated: (i) A base scenario, that reflects developments under current policy settings and respects current trends in nature conservation and organic farming practices, by assuming moderate overall yield increases; (ii) an environment oriented scenario with higher emphasis on sustainable farming practices and maintenance of biodiversity; and (iii) an energy oriented scenario considering more substantial land use conversions including the use of pasture land. By 2030 some...
The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with 4-t-butyl-6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (t-Bu-C2-BTBP) in water/2-propanol solution is studied. With increasing ligand concentration, 1 : 2 complexes [M(t-Bu-C2-BTBP)(2)(H2O)](3+) form from the solvated metal ions. The stability constants are log K-Cm(III) = 11.1 and log K-Eu(III) = 9.0. For both Cm(III) and Eu(III), the complexation reaction is both enthalpy and entropy driven. Delta H-Cm(III) is 11.7 kJ mol(-1) more negative than Delta H-Eu(III), whereas the entropy difference is negligible. This is in good agreement with t-Bu-C2-BTBP's selectivity in liquid-liquid extraction.
Objectives: In this study, morphological and chemical changes in teeth enamel exposed to alkaline agents, with or without surfactants, have been investigated. In addition, chemical effects of the organic surface layer, i.e. plaque and pellicle, were also investigated. Methods: The present study was conducted using several techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: From XPS-measurements, it was found that exposure to alkaline solutions resulted in a massive removal of carbon from the tooth surface, and that the addition of surfactants increased the rate under present conditions. Based on the results from the FTIR-analysis, no substitution reactions between phosphate, carbonate and hydroxide ions in the enamel...
Since the model program in automotive industry gets more and more extensive, the costs related to inspection increase. Therefore, there are needs for more effective inspection preparation. In this paper a method for reducing the number of inspection points using cluster analysis is tested on production data. This leads to reductions evaluated up to 90 percent in the case studies considered. Furthermore, the relation between movements in locators and the resulting movements in inspection points is used to find inspection points particularly suited to monitor the fixtures and its locating points. Those same points are used as input to the cluster analysis and chosen as representatives for the clusters. Using cluster analysis, the sample size is an important matter. The sample size, of course, affects the statistical confidence, but it is...
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