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In the poetic itinerary of Emile Verhaeren, “Le Passeur d’eau” – as in the entire series of Villages Illusoires, appears in many ways as a transitional poem, between the first “Black Trilogy”, marked by the schopenhauerian pessimism, and the new ethic-aesthetic of Campagnes hallucinées. In this article we propose to show how the water theme – recurring in the Verhaerenian work – associated to the daily effort of “passeur” and to the human energy and to hope always renovated, acquires a mainly symbolic dimension. Water, the reflect of creation where the boatman’s gesture at the wheel of his small boat and the poet become one, reconciling in an inseparable way the poetics and ethics, representing a work “follement” turned towards the future, in the pivotal moment of awakening of Belgian literature. Keywords: Verhaeren, Symbolism, Schope...
At the turn of the Century, in Europe, many novels or short stories evoke walks along the sea, on the dikes recently upgraded under the growing vogue of stays resorts, or on strike, who conducts to more solitary reveries. We will consider the many variations of this Topical of the promenade along the sea or on the beach, and compare its forms and functions within the various narratives studied. Keywords: Guy de Maupassant, Anton Tchekhov, Thomas Hardy, Theodor Fontane, Thomas Mann, Stay resort
Having first taken shape in 1880 and written in 1883, La joie de vivre marks the return of the author to a particular setting, a small fishing village on the coast of Normandy, and to a crisis, the threat of the sea, the overwhelming weight of nature over man. For its constantly renewed aspect, the sea is what fascinates. A source of contemplation, océan-spectacle, the sea turns, for its theatrical character, into a source both of pleasure and of death. A symbol of the archetypal struggle of man against the collective unconscious, translated through the illusion of its power over unrestrained nature, the maritime landscape in Zola also establishes games of correspondence with the feminine imagery. The obsession of the sea tides, a sign of devouring and dissolution, is overcome by the description of the period of the feminine character ...
In his inaugural lecture (2006), Antoine Companon defends literature and literary studies in a moral and « ruskinian » manner. At the same moment, Yves Citton builds a reading model in which literary reading is defined as « actualisation » and « affabulation ». I try to explain in this article why I prefer, given the actual crisis of literary studies, the Citton method. Keywords: Literary reading, Possible texts, Affabulation, Actualization, Compagnon, Citton
We live in a curious time: on one side the unprecedented rupture of global information systems, creating new forms and new modes of communication, new concepts and new relationships of time, space and of the other on, on the other side the difficulty to communicate, and an increasing instrumentalization of human secular resources such as stories and its connected term narrative. We will attempt to answer these questions with the inspirational words of Doris Lessing’s Nobel lecture (2007). Firstly, we will question them according to the notions of fiction, as was first suggested by Mallarmé. Secondly, we will present different current uses and false uses of “storytelling” its risks and stakes, based on the homonym work of Christian Salmon (2007). And lastly, we will try to clarify the potential performatives covered by this secular prac...
Saint-Malo is baptized the “Nid des Corsaires”. It is the most glistening port in the Louis XIV’s kingdom (Lespagnol, 1995). How not to hold the famous names to which gives birth Saint-Malo, with a sailor such as Jacques Cartier or privateers as René Duguay-Trouin and Robert Surcouf? Saint Malo's prosperity in the Modern period and offspring of its famous names, can be understand only in ferments’ prospect carried out by other malouins, which footnotes of history was repulsed in the shade of greatest one. Include Saint Malo in the XIVth century requires a dichotomous reading. On one hand, the city joins in the continuity towards its past, that of three men’s types independance, in the triple legacy’s bloodline, the crossroads of an unchanging sea; on the other hand, it evolves with regard to his its time, there also according to the se...
Nicolas Bouvier’s work (Geneva, 1929-1998) is the result of his lifelong travel impressions which began while he was still a teenager. In the circuits taken by this great traveler, the land routes are seemingly the most significant ones even though the sea, which is virtually absent, often reveals itself through associated elements which are materialized in notable metaphors. As metaphor, symbol or physical reference, the sea and its related imagery emerge in the exceptional experiences in the islands, particularly those in Le Poisson-scorpion. This text interweaves the threads of land and sea as well as of individuality and alterity. Keywords: Nicolas Bouvier, Islands, Scorpionfish, Travel, Land routes
For Malika Mokeddem, the sea is a fundamental element in her representation of the world. The Mediterranean Sea is indeed the border between her two fictional and utobiographical fields of action: Algeria and France. From this double culture, this double belonging and equally this double rending, Malika Mokeddem moulds the substance of a literary creation characterized by tension between the desert and the Mediterranean. These zones are simultaneously places and “no-places”; they are literary creations, projections of aspirations and of internal conflicts, allegories of battles won and victories over fear, taboos and the weights of convention. Keywords: Malika Mokeddem, French-speaking literature of the Maghreb, Desert, Intertextuality, Transtextuality, Identity
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