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With O Corpo de Helena, Paulo José Miranda returns, in his first published play, to the myth of the Atridas. By recuperating the famous theme of the Micenas legend, the Portuguese playwright uses both formal and thematic freedom, while still emphasizing vital concepts from the Greek tragedy: the conflict between physis and nomos– nature and social convention–, the purposelessness of war and time as the main cause for the transience of human life. The fundamental innovation is surely the character of Menelaos who now becomes the true protagonist, enveloped in the heroism that derives from the doubt and acceptance of his own frailty: “Menelaos, the one who didn’t go to war and, overthrown in home and thoughts, has challenged the gods.”
Based on episodes that portray formative situations bearing on the relationship between parents and children, we seek to evaluate essential topics pertaining to the theme of education in the Histories. This study aims to deal with the following questions: are fatherly and motherly models always different or do they resemble when it comes to some values and attitudes? Does the author limit his presentation to constructive exempla or does he also focus on reproachable types? Are patterns of behaviour directly related to the cultural origin of individuals? In other words, is being Greek or Barbarian an essential condition determining distinct portraits of fathers and mothers? Keywords: fathers; mothers; children; education; philia; death; infanticide.
Latin pronouns, usually referred to as demonstratives in traditional grammars, make up a complex system in which each element accomplishes one or more individual and distinctive functions. The deictic/demonstrative series (hic, iste, ille) and the phoric series (is, ide, ipse) constitute the two pillars of a system which remained somewhat stable until the late Latin period, after which it underwent a complete restructuration. The central position held by this system in both Latin and other languages as far as reference is concerned (ego, hic et nunc), justifies the analysis and reflection about the ways in which the question is dealt with in the Portuguese grammars and coursebooks which are currently available for secondary school teachers.
In the action of courtly preachers, in vernacular reportationes by chroniclers, in sermons and orationes by Martinho de Viana, Gil Vicente, Garcia de Resende and Fr. Heitor Pinto, we attempt to interpret the evolution of Portuguese parenetics during the 15th and 16th centuries. The comparison with the arts of preaching allows us to understand: 1) the extent to which the tradition of the sermo modernus has resisted the shaping influence of classical rhetoric; 2) how sacred rhetoric, due to the influence of Counter-Reformation, has resorted to the languages of Humanism — the spolia Aegyptii referred to in the normative texts of the Jesuits; 3) the extent to which Tridentine rhetoric has recovered the medieval model. Keywords: sacred oratory; arts of preaching; rhetoric.
Even though in tragedy the Messenger usually narrates the offstage events, which conventionally cannot be presented to the audience, this character should not be seen only from the technical point of view. In this paper some stylistic devices are presented, which allow for the messenger’s speech, in Seneca’s Phaedra, to keep the dramatic and emotional strength, despite the absence of visual presentation. Keywords: Seneca’s Phaedra; Messenger’s speech; Euripides’ Hippolytus, Ovid’s Metamorphoses; stylistic devices.
After an overview of selected aspects of the relationship of patronage and clientele since the origins of Rome up to the republican period, this article focuses on the daily experience of clients in imperial Rome, as presented by Juvenal’s critical eye. It is with deep and unashamed irony that the author satirises several aspects concerning the obligations and privileges implied by the status of client: on the one hand, the extenuating wandering through the streets of Rome in order to pay the morning salutatio and the fierce competition for the tip at the patron’s door involving poorer clients, wealthy freedmen and even magistrates; on the other, the benefits conquered which comprised both the tip and a scarce and poor quality occasional meal at the patron’s house. These are some of the aspects which, according to Juvenal, bring about ...
This study deals with lines 27-28 from Hesiod’s Theogony and attempts to analyse the possibilities of interpretation of what the Muses declare to the poet by seeking to understand the status of the pseûdos that they claim as their realm of competence as goddesses. The excerpt is similar to Homer’s statements concerning both the Muses and the Mermaids, as well as a variant of Hesiod’s formula as applied to Ulysses (Odyssey 19.203). It can be concluded that the boundary separating truth from lie is already presented as a complex one, demanding sound judgement from the hearer/reader.
João de Barros who had an excellent knowledge of Classical Antiquity uses the prologues in Décadas da Ásia to put forward several concepts and positions that seemed adequate to his time and historical conceptions, but never refrains from including an array of references to both Latin and Greek literature that clearly show that not only is he familiar with these works but he also often adopts concepts that had been used by classical authors.
Horace et Lydie is a comedy by François Ponsard that constitutes an adaptation of Horace’s ode III, 9. In this article, we carry out an analysis of the Latin sources by means of which we hope to highlight the strategies Ponsard resorts to in order to assimilate not only the above-mentioned ode, but also other general topics pertaining to Horatian lyrical poetry. Therefore, by establishing both the similarities and differences with the Latin text, we seek to enquire the author’s intention and motivation. Keywords: Horace et Lydie; Ponsard; Horace; amplificatio; intertextuality; humour; Classicism; Romanticism.
Among the contemporary Portuguese poets who were inspired by ancient Greece, the author has selected four: Sophia de Mello Breyner, Eugénio de Andrade, Manuel Alegre and José Augusto Seabra. This study focuses on two specific themes: the spiritual landscape, often contrasting with that of the present, as well as the beauty of both the real landscape and the monuments. Despite displaying quite different styles, these poets all share their admiration for Greece which for them epitomises an intellectual motherland where the ideals of justice, freedom, wisdom and beauty were born.
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