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[From the introduction]. On November 4 and 5, 2006, a new Ibero-American summit will take place in Montevideo, Uruguay. This event will be one of the last epoch-making Latin American developments that have attracted attention of political analysts for a long year, among them a dozen presidential elections in Latin America that in part shook the foundations of political behavior and propelled a number of neo-populist leaders to power. While the historical balance of the Ibero-American process that aimed at its birth in 1991 for the formation os an Ibero-American Community of Nations is modest, the current circumstances make it this time an attractive exercise to be closely observed. While Latin America seems to be immersed in a crisis of regional integration, Europe is experiencing growing pains with the result of important casualties s...
[From the introduction]. In order to strengthen regional integration in the EU, the European Commission, since 2000, has encouraged improving European governance which became one of the Commission’s strategic objectives. Thus, for the past seven years the Commission has been on a constant quest to improve methods of governance not just in its own daily practices but also in its external affairs. The EU has made the adoption of good governance initiatives a requirement for the allocation of its external regional development funding. With a conceptual framework based on governance, this paper will address to what extent and in what forms the EU, the CAN, and MERCOSUR have adopted practices of good governance, specifically those related to nonhierarchical governance. This qualitative analysis is based on a comprehensive review of original...
[Introduction]. On April 17th, 2007 the European Union announced it would be giving Central America an aid package totaling 840 million Euros. Commissioner for EU External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner said the aid package included an increment of 25% intended to help the Central American region in their integration efforts. Commissioner Ferrero-Waldner reiterated the EU’s continued commitment to help the Central American countries achieve political and social stability through democracy, justice, security, while fighting poverty and protecting the environment.1 The EU’s aid package presented to Central America is just another in a long series of development aid that the EU has given to the region. Historically the EU has been the largest aid donor in the region and has been the main proponent of Central American integration. Centra...
[From the introduction]. The rejection of the European Constitutional Treaty (ECT) by France on 29 May 2005 and the Netherlands on 1 June 2005 left the future of European Union (EU) in question. After the failed referendums, the Heads of State and Government in the European Council called for a reflection period to give member states time to decide on next steps. Under the leadership of Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU), the German Presidency, in the Chair from January through June 2007, has established a timetable to reach agreement among the 27 member states as to how to proceed with the European Constitutional Treaty. The German Presidency’s efforts are sincere and its effort has been substantial.
[From the introduction] The relationship between the United States and Europe will heavily depend on the political ambition will exercised by the leadership at both sides of the Atlantic to correct the excessive disagreement exposed after September 11. It will also continue to suffer the impact of a permanent endemic dimension affecting mutual perceptions. In essence, as the popular saying goes, it takes two to tango. Experts and influential scholars agree that this task is of the outmost importance.1
[Introduction]. On the 1st of January 2007 Romania and Bulgaria became members of the European Union. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has had its difficulties and many wonder if these two Eastern European countries are in fact ready to join the EU. Although their economies are growing fast, both countries are poor in income as well as in public spirit. Bribes are routine and officials tend to be badly trained, ill-paid and often corrupt, with the worst corruption in both countries occurring in the customs service. Similar problems exist in the countries´ judiciaries.1 Improvement efforts have not proved efficient enough, especially in Bulgaria where many suspect that changes will not be effective since political will is lacking at the top. Romania is at least willing to prosecute corrupt politicians while in Bulgaria the process has har...
This summer subprime crisis and the subsequent credit crunch have placed central banks again on the spot. In the USA and Europe, central banks have made significant steps to calm down financial turbulence by engineering liquidity injections, and interest rate shift. In Europe, following a recent Banking Lending Survey (October 2007) signaling a tightening of the credit standards for loans to enterprises, the ECB, in a counter-cyclical effort, has managed to leave on hold interest rate. As sound as sensible the ECB move can be seen, it appears the bank set to delay action on excess of liquidity, as shown in the persisting overshooting of M3. The ECB rates halt, or a likely near-term cut, as some would suggest, could only send the wrong signal. A neglect of M3 overshooting while accelerating inflationary pressures reveals the bank’s weak...
[Introduction]. Relations between Iceland and the European Union date back to 1973 when Iceland signed a bilateral free trade agreement with the EU. The agreement only covered part of the trade between Iceland and EU member states at that time, and after the EU set forth the Single European Act1 in 1986 the bilateral agreement was replaced by the European Economic Area Agreement (EEA), to prevent trade barriers between EFTA2 countries and EU member states. The main goal of the EEA Agreement is to form a homogeneous market zone covering EU and EFTA member states Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Besides giving Iceland open access to EU´s common market the agreement also includes common rules in various areas to ensure fair competition, environmental protection, consumer protection and minimum social benefits. In addition the three EFTA...
[From the introduction]. Currently, there is an academic debate on whether economic integration precedes political integration or vice versa: this debate mainly focuses on explaining whether regional integration is caused by political or economic factors. Some assert that political decisions have been motivated by economic reasoning3, and explain that historical evidence proves that “descriptions of fluctuations of international economic integration identify clear economic dynamics behind political decisions.”4 Others believe that political decisions are the propellers of regional integration and, as Balassa states, “political motives may prompt the first step in economic integration.”5 Regardless of this debate, this paper will explain how the introduction of the euro has facilitated the EU’s regional integration process, which encomp...
[Introduction]. US lawyers and EU lawyers seek the same justice but through different alleys. I plan to describe the main differences between common law and civil law (2) civil procedures (3).
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