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This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the rRNA intergenic spacer and of five parts of the symbiotic region adjacent to nod box sequences. By all criteria, the R. galegae bv. officinalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis strains form distinct clusters. The nod box regions are highly conserved among strains belonging to each of the two biovars but differ structurally to various degrees between the biovars. The findings suggest varyi...
Root mat of cucumbers and tomatoes has previously been shown to be caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter strains harboring a root-inducing Ri plasmid (pRi). Nine other pRi-harboring -Proteobacteria have subsequently been isolated from root mat-infected crops. Fatty acid profiling and partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis identified three of these strains as being in the genus Ochrobactrum, five as being in the genus Rhizobium, and one as being in the genus Sinorhizobium. An in vitro pathogenicity test involving inoculation of cucumber cotyledons was developed. All pRi-harboring -Proteobacteria induced typical root mat symptoms from the cotyledons. Average transformation rates for rhizogenic Ochrobactrum (46%) and Rhizobium (44%) strains were lower than those observed for rhizogenic A. radiobacter strains (64%). However, individual strains f...
The nodulation genes of Mesorhizobium sp. (Astragalus sinicus) strain 7653R were cloned by functional complementation of Sinorhizobium meliloti nod mutants. The common nod genes, nodD, nodA, and nodBC, were identified by heterologous hybridization and sequence analysis. The nodA gene was found to be separated from nodBC by approximately 22 kb and was divergently transcribed. The 2.0-kb nodDBC region was amplified by PCR from 24 rhizobial strains nodulating A. sinicus, which represented different chromosomal genotypes and geographic origins. No polymorphism was found in the size of PCR products, suggesting that the separation of nodA from nodBC is a common feature of A. sinicus rhizobia. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified nodA gene indicated that seven strains representing different 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA genotypes had identical ...
Sinorhizobium meliloti was isolated from nodules and soil from western Tajikistan, a center of diversity of the host plants (Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella species). There was evidence of recombination, but significant disequilibrium, between and within the chromosome and megaplasmids. The most frequent alleles matched those in the published genome sequence.
In John Rawls’s The Law of Peoples we find unfamiliar concepts, surprising pronouncements, and what appear from a familiar Rawlsian perspective to be elementary errors in reasoning. Even Rawls’s most sensitive and sympathetic interpreters have registered unusually deep misgivings about the book. Most perplexing of all is the general character of the view that Rawls sets out to justify. For in this book Rawls, the twentieth century’s leading liberal egalitarian, advances a theory which shows no direct concern for individuals and requires no narrowing of global material inequality. I believe that The Law of Peoples does present a coherent and powerful argument, if not one beyond criticism. Two points are crucial for understanding the book’s strengths and weaknesses. The first is that Rawls in this work is concerned more with...
We investigate polynomial spline approximation of stationary random processes on a uniform grid applied to Clarke's model of time variations of path amplitudes in multipath fading channels with Doppler scattering. The integral mean square error (MSE) for optimal and interpolation splines is presented as a series of spectral moments. The optimal splines outperform the interpolation splines; however, as the sampling factor increases, the optimal and interpolation splines of even order tend to provide the same accuracy. To build such splines, the process to be approximated needs to be known for all time, which is impractical. Local splines, on the other hand, may be used where the process is known only over a finite interval. We first consider local splines with quasioptimal spline coefficients. Then, we derive optimal spline coefficients...
Ninety-five rhizobial strains isolated from Astragalus adsurgens growing in the northern regions of China were classified into three main groups, candidate species 1, 11 and 111, based on a polyphasic approach. Comparative analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative strains showed that candidate species I and 11 were Mesorhizobium, while candidate species 111, which consisted of non-nodulating strains, was closely related to Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The phylogenetic relationships of the three candidate species and some related strains were also confirmed by the sequencing of glnA genes, which were used as an alternative chromosomal marker. The DNA-DNA relatedness was between 11.3 and 47-1 % among representative strains of candidate species I and 11 and the type strains of defined Mesorhizobium species. Candidate...
This paper examines the problem of carrier phase recovery in turbo-coded systems. We introduce a new concept of "a priori probability aided phase estimation", where the extrinsic information (log-likelihood ratio) obtained from turbo decoder is used to aid an iterative phase estimation process, which is based on a maximum-likelihood strategy. The phase estimator operates jointly with the turbo decoding rather than separately prior to the decoder as in traditional approaches. This technique provides reliable phase estimation with variance of estimation errors approaching the Cramer-Rao bound at very low signal-to-noise ratio and allows robust decoding with a wide range of phase errors. This paper addresses its application in turbo-coded binary phase-shift keying and quaternary phase-shift keying systems over the additive white Gaussian ...
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