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The term ‘internal consistency’ has been used extensively in classical psychometrics to refer to the reliability of a scale based on the degree of within-scale item intercorrelation, as measured by say the split-half method, or more adequately by Cronbach's (1951) (Psychometrika, 16, 297–334) alpha, as well as the KR20 and KR21 coefficients. This term is a misnomer, as a high estimate of internal item consistency/item homogeneity may also suggest a high level of item redundancy, wherein essentially the same item is rephrased in several different ways.
A survey of the female and gay sexual partners of circumcised and genitally intact men revealed that circumcised men experienced significantly reduced sexual sensation along with associated long-lasting negative emotional consequences.
Extract:Report order was investigated using tachistoscopically exposed random letter arrays. No significant interaction between report order and position of fixation point was found, despite significant main efiects for both variables. For right-to-left report order, recognition was superior in theRVF under bilateral presentation, and in the LVF under unilateral presentation. Whereas "sequential scanning" could not account for the findings, a combination of cerebral dominance and forgetting during report did provide a satisfactory explanation of the data. Hence, considerable doubt was cast on Heron's (1957) directional "post-perceptual scanning" hypothesis
As expatriate managers continue to be a viable means for exercising control over foreign operations, they can have a direct impact on organizational performance, and therefore a delineation of the history of these key leaders in order to enhance our understanding of their continued significant impact is a laudable goal. The paper discusses each stage of the human resource management process, beginning with the identification and concluding with the repatriation stage of expatriate managers. Each stage is discussed in terms of the successes as well as problems/failures associated with the individual, organizational, environmental and systemic unit in mind. The paper concludes with future implications emphasizing the necessity to create new and/or enhance current practices relating to the development of expatriate managers' maximum globa...
The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations'/industries' forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT) of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be recons...
A stream of research exists that focuses on traditional mentoring (senior female managers mentoring junior members in a domestic organization). The literature further indicates that females are increasing in number but may receive less mentoring than males and expatriates may receive less mentoring than domestic employees. A new paradigm, reverse mentoring, has emerged (e.g., a junior person, knowledgeable of the rapid technological change and globalization of business, acts as the mentor for a senior person). This paper proposes a third type of mentoring, 'reciprocal', as essential for competition in global markets. It is argued that mentoring can become a strategic tool in the organizational knowledge creation and transfer process. Moreover, mentoring could serve as a competitive advantage in creating an effective support system for ...
This paper uses status inconsistency theory to identify factors related to satisfaction with the composition of virtual teams to predict turnover intentions. The paradox that increasing diversity maximizes the creation and use of organizational knowledge while increasing dissatisfaction and turnover is a critical issue in the formation/management of virtual teams. We therefore examine how perceptions of differences among members (i.e., their ‘liability of foreignness’) impact the stability of team membership. Findings from both studies indicate that perceptions of foreignness have a detrimental effect on satisfaction with one’s team members while satisfaction is likely to decrease turnover intention.
Dual career families are more resistant to undertaking expatriate assignments primarily due to the difficulties associated with the trailing spouse not being able to find a job overseas and the potential net financial loss for the couple. As reported in other research, the failure of spouse or family to adjust is the number one reason for expatriate failure, therefore, a model for selecting expatriate candidates that accommodates the dual career family should help international human resource managers. This paper examines some of the particular gender and sociological issues surrounding the dual career expatriate couple, such as family and career Life-Cycles, to identify ‘strategic windows’ of opportunities for relocating expatriates overseas. Several selection methods based on self selection, such as accomplishment review, plus corres...
Globalization of business can have a profound impact on the decision-making processes of managers responsible for making these complex interrelated decisions. This paper explores the global decision-making processes of global managers. The first element examined is the multiple intelligences that global managers need to be able to address the issues associated with global decisions. These eight IQs are considered critical elements in the decision-making capabilities of global managers. Following this discussion, the composition of global groups and their impact on the decision-making process is explored to determine how the composition of the group inhibits/supports the global manager. The next step in the decision-making process discussed in the paper is that of the nature of the task(s). The type of task can have a direct impact on t...
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