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This article reviews the book, “Physical education: picking up the batons”, edited by M. Thorburn & S. Gray.
In this article we extend consideration of differences of interest in employment relationships to career issues. Two sets of interests – those of employing organizations and of individual workers – often make careers ‘contested terrain’ in which organizations pursue strategic advantages and individuals personal advantages. The contestation is contextualized by current trends to individualized employment relations and a focus on managerial, professional and technical work. The two interest sets mirror a disjuncture between two disciplinary bases, the ‘vocational’ base underpinned by psychology and the ‘strategic human resource management’ (SHRM) base, underpinned by economics. We develop a ‘psychological contract’ model, in which both individuals and organizations invest knowledge capital in the other with a view to obtaining long-term ...
The efficacy and cost of input standards for reducing nitrate pollution from New Zealand dairy production are evaluated. In contrast to previous studies, firm heterogeneity is explicitly considered through the novel integration of efficient techniques for the calibration and decomposition of large optimisation models. Nitrogen fertiliser application should not be targeted by policy given its minor role in determining emissions. In contrast, livestock intensity is an appropriate base for regulation given its strong correlation with pollutant load. Abatement cost increases as stocking rate declines, but this can be offset at low levels of regulation through utilising slack feed resources to improve per-cow milk production. Both uniform and differentiated input standards based on livestock intensity achieve substantial decreases in pollut...
The intensive pastoral farming system on which New Zealand animal production is based is almost completely dependent upon the rhizobium-legurne symbiosis for the fixed nitrogen required for pasture production. The average annual fixation has been measured as 184 kg nitrogen/ha in developed lowland pastures Hoglund et cii., 1979 and about 13 kg nitrogen/ha in poorly developed bill country pastures (Grant and Lambert, 1979). From these figures it can be estimated that rhizobia in New Zealand pastures fix in excess of one million tonnes of nitrogen an nually. The current annual application of fertilizer nitrogen to pastures is about 12 500 tonnes (O'Connor, 1979).
This article reviews the book: “Dear Sweet Harry”, by Lynn Jenner.
Articles 1 and 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, when read together, require a proper and adequate official investigation into deaths resulting from the actions of state agents, both from the use of lethal force, and also in situations arising from the negligence of agents that leads to a death. The article considers the extent of the obligation to carry out an effective investigation since its explicit recognition by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of McCann and Others v. United Kingdom. The article assesses the jurisprudence of the duty to investigate in order to determine whether the obligation is now placing too onerous a burden on member states in order to comply with their duties under the Convention, or whether the duty does indeed secure the right to life, as is intended. To assess the original propos...
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