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Fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) delivers ligands from the cytosol directly to the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ and thus facilitates the ligation and enhances the transcriptional activity of the receptor. We show here that expression levels of both FABP5 and PPARβ/δ are correlated with the tumorigenic potential of prostate cancer cell lines. We show further that FABP5 comprises a direct target gene for PPARβ/δ and thus the binding protein and its cognate receptor are engaged in a positive feedback loop. The observations demonstrate that, similarly to effects observed in mammary carcinomas, activation of the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway induces PPARβ/δ target genes involved in cell survival and growth and enhances cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the data show that downregulation of eit...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Incorporating shared medical appointments (SMAs) or group visits into clinical practice to improve care and increase efficiency has become a popular intervention, but the processes to implement and sustain them have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of implementation of SMAs in the local context of a primary care clinic over time. METHODS: The setting was a primary care clinic of an urban academic medical center of the Veterans Health Administration. We performed an in-depth case analysis utilizing both an innovations framework and a nested systems framework approach. This analysis helped organize and summarize implementation and sustainability issues, specifically: the pre-SMA local context; the processes of tailoring and implementation of the intervention; and the evo...
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stress are both involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and have been shown to be reciprocally linked. One group of molecules that have been directly associated with inflammation and the production of free radicals are the prostaglandin 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2alpha and the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha. RESULTS: To further delineate the role of inflammatory and oxidative parameters in Alzheimer disease, in this study we evaluated the amount and localization of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2alpha and 8-iso-PGF2alpha in hippocampal post mortem tissue samples from age-matched Alzheimer disease and control patients. Our results demonstrate increased levels of 13,14-dihydro 15-keto PGF2alpha and 8-iso-PGF2alpha in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of Alzheimer disease patients when compared to c...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous gene lists or "classifiers" have been derived from global gene expression data that assign breast cancers to good and poor prognosis groups. A remarkable feature of these molecular signatures is that they have few genes in common, prompting speculation that they may use distinct genes to measure the same pathophysiological process(es), such as proliferation. However, this supposition has not been rigorously tested. If gene-based classifiers function by measuring a minimal number of cellular processes, we hypothesized that the informative genes for these processes could be identified and the data sets could be adjusted for the predictive contributions of those genes. Such adjustment would then attenuate the predictive function of any signature measuring that same process. RESULTS: We tested this hypothesis...
BACKGROUND: Mutations in LRRK2 encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 are thus far the most frequent genetic cause associated with autosomal dominant and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). To examine whether LRRK2 is directly associated with neuropathology of PD and other related disorders, we analyzed LRRK2 in brains of patients affected by PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) using highly specific antibodies to LRRK2. RESULTS: We demonstrated that anti-LRRK2 antibodies strongly labelled brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmarks of PD and DLB, respectively. In addition, anti-LRRK2 also labelled brain vasculature, axons, and neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, the immunocytochemical profile of LRRK2 varied with different antibodies depending upon specific antigenic sites along the LRRK2 protein. All anti-LRRK2 ...
Measurements of antigen-specific T cell responses in chronic diseases are limited by low frequencies of antigen-specific cells in the peripheral blood. Therefore, attempts have been made to add costimulatory molecules such as anti-CD28 or IL-7/IL-15 to ELISPOT assays to increase sensitivity. While this approach has been successful under certain circumstances, results are often inconsistent. To date, there are no comprehensive studies directly comparing the in vitro effects of multiple costimulatory molecules in different disease settings. Therefore, in the present study we tested the effects of IL-7/IL-15, IFN-alpha, anti-ICOS, and anti-CD28 on antigen-specific T cell responses in patients infected with HCV or HIV versus healthy individuals. Our data show that none of the aforementioned molecules could significantly increase ELISPOT se...
This paper is concerned with random rooted trees and studies the distribution of the vertices according to their altitude. If the trees are chosen at random with an increasing number of vertices, then, by a suitable normalization, the distribution function of the number of vertices at a given altitude and the distribution function of the total height approach specific limits. Explicit formulas are given for these limit distribution functions and their moments.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dental neglect has been found to be related to poor oral health, a tendency not to have had routine check-ups, and a longer period of time since the last dental appointment in samples of children and adults. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS) has been found to be a valid measure of dental neglect in samples of children and adults, and may be valid for adolescents as well. We administered the DNS to a sample of adolescents and report on the relationships between the DNS and oral health status, whether or not the adolescent has been to the dentist recently for routine check-ups, and whether or not the adolescent currently goes to a dentist. We also report the internal and test-retest reliabilities of the DNS in this sample, as well as the results of an exploratory factor analysis. METHODS: One hundred seventeen adolesce...
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that neurons prone to degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) exhibit evidence of re-entry into an aberrant mitotic cell cycle. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in a genomic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mouse model of AD (R1.40), neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs) occur in the absence of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and are still dependent upon the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These data suggested that soluble Abeta species might play a direct role in the induction of neuronal CCEs. Here, we show that exposure of non-transgenic primary cortical neurons to Abeta oligomers, but not monomers or fibrils, results in the retraction of neuronal processes, and induction of CCEs in a concentration dependent manner. Retraction of neuronal processes corre...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in vessel walls of the brain as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of dementia. Here we investigate the relationship between dementia and the prevalence of CAA in older populations. We searched the literature for prospective population-based epidemiological clinicopathological studies, free of the biases of other sampling techniques, which were used as a comparison. METHODS: To identify population-based studies assessing CAA and dementia, a previous systematic review of population-based clinicopathological studies of ageing and dementia was employed. To identify selected-sample studies, PsychInfo (1806-April Week 3 2008), OVID MEDLINE (1950-April Week 2 2008) and Pubmed (searched 21 April 2008) databases were searched using the term "amy...
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