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The synthesis of the 1,6,8-trioxadispiro[4.1.5.2]tetradec-11-enes 12 present in the shellfish toxins spirolides B 1 and D 2, is reported. The two spirocentres were constructed via iterative radical oxidative cyclization of hydroxyalkyl dihydropyran 14 and hydroxyalkyl spiroacetal 13 using iodobenzene diacetate and iodine. This procedure initially afforded a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of bis-spiroacetals 12a : 12b : 12c : 12d, however subsequent acid catalysed equilibration afforded a 3 : 1 : 0.9 thermodynamic mixture of 12a : 12b : 12c. The major bis-spiroacetal 12a underwent stereoselective epoxidation using dimethyldioxirane to α-epoxide 33a. Subsequent base induced rearrangement of this epoxide 33a using lithium diethylamide in pentane afforded allylic alcohol 34a, that was converted to the more thermodynamically favoured homoallylic alc...
Portimine, a new polycyclic ether toxin containing a cyclic imine moiety, was isolated from the marine benthic dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum collected from Northland, New Zealand. The structure of portimine, including the relative configurations, was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The cyclic imine moiety consists of an unprecedented five-membered ring with a spiro-link to a cyclohexene ring. This is the only structural similarity to the pinnatoxin group of polycyclic ethers also produced by V. rugosum, which all contain a six-membered cyclic imine ring. The LD50 of portimine to mice by intraperitoneal injection was 1570 μg/kg, indicating a much lower toxicity than many other cyclic imine shellfish toxins. In contrast, portimine was highly toxic to mammalian cells in vitro with an LC50 to P388 cells of 2.7 nM, and activati...
Pinnatoxins and pteriatoxins are a group of cyclic imine toxins that have hitherto only been isolated from Japanese shellfish. As with other cyclic imine shellfish toxins, pinnatoxins cause rapid death in the mouse bioassay for lipophilic shellfish toxins, but there is no evidence directly linking these compounds to human illness. We have identified the known pinnatoxins A (1) and D (6), and the novel pinnatoxins E (7), F (8) and G (5), in a range of shellfish and environmental samples from Australia and New Zealand using LC−MS. After isolation from the digestive glands of Pacific oysters, the structures of the novel pinnatoxins were determined by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, and their LD50 values were evaluated by ip administration to mice. Examination of the toxin structures, together with analysis of environmental samples...
As part of a programme directed towards the synthesis of the marine toxins, the spirolides and gymnodimine, a convenient synthesis of the key bicyclic spiroimine ring systems has been developed. The method involves double alkylation of a simple lactam, Grubbs ring closing metathesis of the resultant dialkylated lactam then reduction of the lactam to an imine.
The pharmacological importance of spiroacetal containing compounds is evident from their widespread occurrence as metabolites from insects, microbes, plats, fungi and various marine organisms. The important biological activity of this class of compound has prompted a variety of methods ...
The synthesis of the ABC spiroacetal-containing fragment of the marine biotoxins, the pectenotoxins (PTXs), is described. The synthetic strategy involves appendage of the highly substituted tetrahydofuran C ring to the AB spiroacetal unit via stereocontrolled cyclization of a γ-hydroxyepoxide. The bis-spiroacetal moiety of the spirolide family of shellfish toxins is also described, making use of an iterative radical oxidative cyclization strategy.
The efficient synthesis of several spirocyclic imines of similar structure to that present in the shellfish toxins, the spirolides and gymnodimine, is described. The key steps involved double α-alkylation of simple lactam starting materials, Grubbs' ring closing metathesis of the resultant bis-alkylated lactams and LiEt3BH reductio­n of the TEOC protected lactams to imines.
The asymmetric synthesis of a functionalized 7,6-spiroimine related to the spirolides is described. Intermolecular Diels−Alder cycloaddition of a chiral trisubstituted dienophile and Danishefsky’s diene enabled simultaneous installation of the C7 and C29 stereocenters. Further transformations and late-stage aza-Wittig cyclization afforded the spiroimine in good yield. During this study, an unprecedented 14-membered dialdimine was also obtained.
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