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Reports have suggested that the two Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, are indispensable to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. However, within the intestinal epithelium, the precise distribution of the cells that express those ligands at the protein level remains largely unknown. Here, we show a series of immunohistochemical analysis through which we successfully identified mice intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that endogenously express Dll1 or Dll4. Results showed that Dll1-positive (Dll1+ve) IECs reside exclusively within the crypt, whereas Dll4-positive (Dll4+ve) IECs can locate both in the crypt and in the villus of the small intestine. Also in the colon, Dll1+ve IECs resided at the lower part of the crypt, whereas Dll4+ve IECs resided at both upper and lower part of the crypt, including the surface epithelium. Bot...
Bone microanalyses of extant vertebrates provide a necessary framework from which to form hypotheses regarding the growth and skeletochronology of extinct taxa. Here, we describe the bone microstructure and quantify the histovariability of appendicular elements and osteoderms from three juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to assess growth mark and tissue organization within and amongst individuals, with the intention of validating paleohistological interpretations. Results confirm previous observations that lamellar and parallel fibered tissue organization are typical of crocodylians, and also that crocodylians are capable of forming woven tissue for brief periods. Tissue organization and growth mark count varies across individual skeletal elements and reveal that the femur, tibia, and humerus had the highest annu...
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I conducted landscape scaling analysis and habitat requirements analysis for longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) using data collected during our survey of the Cerambycidae of Indiana conducted by the Landscape Ecology and Biodiversity Laboratory. The survey was carried out in summers 2005 and 2006 on sites across Indiana. The scaling results suggested that different species responded to landscape characteristics, such as habitat amount and fragmentation, differently and at different scales.^ Results from the analyses on habitat requirements suggested that longhorned beetles present a variety of responses to landscape characteristics. Most species prefer a medium range of forest amount and landscape fragmentation. Several adult flower feeding species require higher amounts of forest than most non-flower feeding species.^ A...
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