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Sources of indoor air pollution and their levels of risk are discussed.
The urban argument assumes currently an extreme level of relevance for the governments and the society in general, due to the exponential increase of people living in cities and the consequent associated degradation of quality of life growth is continuously applying pressures over resources, infrastructures and facilities, affecting negatively the standard of living in cities. In this context, evaluating and monitoring the urban environmental quality has become a main issue particularly important when considered as a decision-support tool that contributes to more liveable and sustainable cities. Viana do Castelo is a mid- sized city located on the northwest seaside, which undertook the challenge of developing an environmental program leading to the integration in a Healthy Cities European Network. The identification of urban ...
In an urban environment the typical anthropogenic sources of benzene are mainly the road traffic. Other important sources are petrol stations and small- scale industries using benzene as a solvent, such as the printing industry, etc. Petrol stations are the most significant of these additional sources. Evaporative emissions from petrol station operations include contributions due to the filling underground tank operations, due to the underground tank breathing and emptying, due to vehicle refuelling operations and lastly due to spillage. The petrol stations are frequently located in populated urban areas consequently exposing the population to this kind of pollution. The present study assesses the co...
Global population growth has led to increased populations living in urban areas. Often, this enhances stresses on space, ecosystems, infrastructures, facilities and personal lifestyles. Problems related to quality of life in cities are increasingly relevant, especially with regard to environmental issues. Due to a generalised increase of mobility and road traffic in urban areas, the total emissions from road traffic have risen significantly, assuming the main responsibility for the disregard of air quality standards. In urban environment the typical anthropogenic sources are mainly the road traffic and, when existing, the industrial activity. The quantitative evaluation of traffic air pollution levels is the basis on which air pollution control policies stand. The evaluation of air quality may be occasional or long-term. Occasional ev...
The City of Viana do Castelo in Portugal has developed an air quality program, which includes prediction of pollutant concentration for NO2, CO, PM10, O3 and C6H6. A range of numerical models were used to produce the concentration maps: the ADMS-Urban model for the pollutants dispersion; the Hills model to calculate air flow and turbulence over complex terrain, including the effects of variable surface roughness; the CORINAIR v.5 to estimate traffic emissions. This paper presents the methodology developed to validate the modelled results. Predicted concentrations were compared against measured concentrations of a chosen pollutant: Carbon Monoxide, CO. Five comparison statistics were calculated for three test points in order to find out the quality of the modelled results. Additionally, a hourly profile of predicted vers...
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