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S-Palmitoylated peptides are important tools as models for integral membrane proteins to study peptide–lipid interactions. Herein, we report a convenient solid phase synthesis of S-palmitoyl transmembrane peptides. The highly acid labile S-(4-methoxytrityl) group is preferred over the S-(tert-butylsulfanyl) group for protection of the cysteine side chain since the latter gives rise to quantitative desulfurization during on-resin deprotection. The resulting free thiol function is modified with palmitic acid via a carbodiimide- mediated coupling and the title compounds are obtained in good yields and purity.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure [i.e., 4-aminobiphenylhemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts] were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a casecontrol study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for >10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and v...
Group 2 coronaviruses encode an accessory envelope glycoprotein species, the hemagglutinin esterase (HE), which possesses sialate-O-acetylesterase activity and which, presumably, promotes virus spread and entry in vivo by facilitating reversible virion attachment to O-acetylated sialic acids. While HE may provide a strong selective advantage during natural infection, many laboratory strains of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) fail to produce the protein. Apparently, their HE genes were inactivated during cell culture adaptation. For this report, we have studied the molecular basis of this phenomenon. By using targeted RNA recombination, we generated isogenic recombinant MHVs which differ exclusively in their expression of HE and produce either the wild-type protein (HE⁺), an enzymatically inactive HE protein (HE⁰), or no HE at all. HE expre...
Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied as an alternative for the commonly used surgical castration in stallions. Two GnRH vaccines comprising non-mineral oil adjuvants were evaluated for their potential to induce high antibody titers directed against GnRH and subsequent effects on reproductive characteristics. Twelve sexually mature male hemicastrated Shetland ponies were assigned to three groups. Group 1 and 2 were injected with 1mg peptide equivalent of G6k-GnRH-tandem-dimer conjugated to ovalbumin (OVA) inCoVaccineTM HTadjuvant (GnRH/CoVaccine) and in Carbopol (GnRH/Carbopol), respectively, and group 3 was injected with CoVaccineTM HT adjuvant without antigen (controls). After immunization no adverse effects were observed with respect to the injections sites or general health. Two weeks after the sec...
Only a relatively few mutations in its spike protein allow the murine coronavirus to switch from a murinerestricted tropism to an extended host range by being passaged in vitro. One such virus that we studied had acquired two putative heparan sulfate-binding sites while preserving another site in the furin-cleavage motif. The adaptation of the virus through the use of heparan sulfate as an attachment/entry receptor was demonstrated by increased heparin binding as well as by inhibition of infection through treatment of cells and the virus with heparinase and heparin, respectively.
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