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STUDY OBJECTIVES: Hemodynamic complications including hypotensive episodes are frequently associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and can be attributed to a generalized inflammatory response in which bradykinin may be a mediator. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma levels of bradykinin-(1-9)nonapeptide in patients during CPB and the physiologic elimination of bradykinin by the lungs. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University hospital, cardiac surgery unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intra-arterial BP was monitored and serial blood samples were obtained from 27 patients undergoing CPB for cardiac surgery. We measured plasma bradykinin and parameters of coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement, contact system, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure fell progressive...
In the serum of 116 healthy individuals, exogenous bradykinin (BK) half-life (27 +/- 10 s) was lower than that of des-Arg(9)-BK (643 +/- 436 s) and was statistically different in men compared with women. The potentiating effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was, however, more extensive for BK (9.0-fold) than for des-Arg(9)-BK (2.2- fold). The activities of ACE, aminopeptidase P (APP), and kininase I were respectively 44 +/- 12, 22 +/- 9, and 62 +/- 10 nmol x min(-1) x ml(-1). A mathematical model (y = kt(alpha)e(-beta t), t > 0), applied to the BK kinetically released from endogenous high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) during plasma activation in the presence of an ACE inhibitor, revealed a significant difference in the rate of formation of BK between men and women. For des-Arg(9)-BK, the active metabolite of BK,...
OBJECTIVES: Observations in experimental models and in human ulcerative colitis suggest that activation of the kallikrein-kinin system plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to assess activation of the plasma and tissue kallikrein-kinin system in Crohn's disease. METHODS: We studied plasma inflammatory and contact system parameters in 36 patients with Crohn's disease and in 36 control subjects with noninflammatory GI diseases. We also obtained tissue samples from the involved intestine of 12 patients with Crohn's disease, and from normal peritumoral tissue (12 patients) and diverticulitis tissue (seven patients) as controls. Full-thickness sections were tested for intestinal tissue kallikrein reactivity with a specific antibody. RESULTS: In Crohn's disease patients and controls, plasma...
Previous observations of increased generation of thrombin during acute attacks of angioedema in plasma of patients with C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency prompted us to evaluate the interaction of C1-INH with thrombin in both purified systems and human plasma. For this purpose, we used several methods: (1) sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis; (2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure complexes between C1-INH and thrombin and inactivated C1-INH; and (3) kinetic studies using a chromogenic assay. We found that the interaction of purified C1-INH with thrombin is associated with the formation of bimolecular complexes of molecular weight (Mr) 130 000 and 120 000 as well as with the appearance of a cleaved form of C1-INH of Mr 97 000. The kinetic studies of inhibition of thrombin by C1...
Male Wistar rats received bilateral Fimbria lesions and were postoperatively housed in either standard social conditions or in impoverished conditions (one rat per cage) for 2 weeks in experiment I, and for 7 months in experiment II. The effects of lesion and housing conditions were investigated in the Morris maze spatial orientation task. Fimbria lesions increased the latency to reach the platform during acquisition in both experiments, which indicates that functional recovery of the Morris maze impairment does not occur in 7 months time. Post-operative impoverishment for 2 weeks or for 7 months reduced the lesion induced deficit in Morris maze acquisition, while it had a more general effect in the trial without platform. Interestingly, the impoverishment effects were not more severe after 7 months, but even less easily detected. Thes...
The basic structure and stereochemistry of the characteristic glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipid of cosmopolitan pelagic crenarchaeota has been identified by high field two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques. It contains one cyclohexane and four cyclopentane rings formed by internal cyclisation of the biphytanyl chains. Its structure is similar to that of GDGTs biosynthesized by (hyper)thermophilic crenarchaeota apart from the cyclohexane ring. These findings are consistent with the close phylogenetic relationship of (hyper)thermophilic and pelagic crenarchaeota based 16S rRNA. The latter group inherited the biosynthetic capabilities for a membrane composed of cyclopentane ring-containing GDGTs from the (hyper)thermophilic crenarchaeota. However, to cope with the much lower temperature of the ocean, a small bu...
Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to muscle fibre degeneration followed by the formation of new myofibres. This degeneration—regeneration event occurs in clusters. It is accompanied by inflammation and remodelling of the intramuscular terminal nerve fibres. Since the growth-associated protein B-50/GAP-43 has been shown to be involved in axonal outgrowth and synaptic remodelling following neuronal injury, we have investigated the presence of B-50 in gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles of mdx mice. Using immunocytochemistry we demonstrate increased presence of B-50 in terminal nerve branches at motor endplates of mdx mice, particularly in the clusters of de- and regenerating myofibres. In comparison, the control mice displayed no B-50 immunoreactivity in nerve fibres contacting motor endplates. Our findings indicate that during axona...
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