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The efficacy and cost of input standards for reducing nitrate pollution from New Zealand dairy production are evaluated. In contrast to previous studies, firm heterogeneity is explicitly considered through the novel integration of efficient techniques for the calibration and decomposition of large optimisation models. Nitrogen fertiliser application should not be targeted by policy given its minor role in determining emissions. In contrast, livestock intensity is an appropriate base for regulation given its strong correlation with pollutant load. Abatement cost increases as stocking rate declines, but this can be offset at low levels of regulation through utilising slack feed resources to improve per-cow milk production. Both uniform and differentiated input standards based on livestock intensity achieve substantial decreases in pollut...
The intensive pastoral farming system on which New Zealand animal production is based is almost completely dependent upon the rhizobium-legurne symbiosis for the fixed nitrogen required for pasture production. The average annual fixation has been measured as 184 kg nitrogen/ha in developed lowland pastures Hoglund et cii., 1979 and about 13 kg nitrogen/ha in poorly developed bill country pastures (Grant and Lambert, 1979). From these figures it can be estimated that rhizobia in New Zealand pastures fix in excess of one million tonnes of nitrogen an nually. The current annual application of fertilizer nitrogen to pastures is about 12 500 tonnes (O'Connor, 1979).
This article reviews the book: “Dear Sweet Harry”, by Lynn Jenner.
Articles 1 and 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, when read together, require a proper and adequate official investigation into deaths resulting from the actions of state agents, both from the use of lethal force, and also in situations arising from the negligence of agents that leads to a death. The article considers the extent of the obligation to carry out an effective investigation since its explicit recognition by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of McCann and Others v. United Kingdom. The article assesses the jurisprudence of the duty to investigate in order to determine whether the obligation is now placing too onerous a burden on member states in order to comply with their duties under the Convention, or whether the duty does indeed secure the right to life, as is intended. To assess the original propos...
The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) GIGANTEA (GI) gene is a central component of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. While it has been 40 years since the first mutant alleles of GI were described much is still unknown about the molecular mechanism of GI action. To investigate the biochemistry and domain organisation (and ultimately to give a greater understanding of the role of GI in floral induction), it is first necessary to produce significant quantities of purified protein. Soluble affinity-tagged full-length GI was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and was stabilised by the addition of the detergent n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) to storage and purification buffers. Stabilised GI was purified using a variety of chromatographic methods, and characterised using a selection of biochemical techniques including circular dichro...
Bresenham’s algorithm for plotting a two-dimensional line segment is elegant and efficient in its deployment of mid-point comparison and integer arithmetic. It is natural to investigate its three-dimensional extensions. In so doing, this paper uncovers the reason for little prior work. The concept of the mid-point in a unit interval generalizes to that of nearest neighbours involving a Voronoi diagram. Algorithmically, there are challenges. While a unit interval in two-dimension becomes a unit square in three-dimension, “squaring” the number of choices in Bresenham’s algorithm is shown to have difficulties. In this paper, the three-dimensional extension is based on the main idea of Bresenham’s algorithm of minimum distance between the line and the grid points. The structure of the Voronoi diagram is presented for grid points to which t...
Several of the major processes that result in N loss from soil (nitrification, ammonia volatilization, and denitrification) discriminate against ¹⁵N and fractionate the stable N isotopes, thus δ¹⁵N of ecosystem components has been suggested as an indicator of ecosystem N leakiness. This concept has been applied more successfully to native systems (primarily forest) than to managed systems where N inputs are greater and N cycling processes have potentially been modified. We analysed 210 New Zealand soils (0–100 mm depth) from different land-use systems (increasing in intensity of land use management from indigenous, to plantation forestry, pasture under drystock, pasture under dairy, and cropping) for δ¹⁵N and measures of N availability (total N, C/N, and N mineralization) to determine whether increasing intensity of land use management...
The aim of this research was to improve overtaking safety and efficiency through improvements in road signage, markings, geometry and speed control associated with the placement and layout of passing lanes. The approach of the research was to explore the effects of several types of overtaking lane treatments in the safety and controlled environment of a state-of-the-art driving simulator. It was found that under the most benign conditions there were no differential effects of the three treatments. With poorer visibility or more taxing road geometry, the drivers relied more heavily on the road markings and signage and the effects of the treatments become more pronounced. The sensitivity to the more "challenging" situations was borne out by the greater speed differential between merge area sections at these sites.
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