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This paper presents an extension to Hoare logic for pointer program verification. First, the Logic for Partial Function (LPF) used by VDM is extended to specify memory access using pointers and memory layout of composite types. Then, the concepts of data-retrieve functions (DRF) and memory-scope functions (MSF) are introduced in this paper. People can define DRFs to retrieve abstract values from interconnected concrete data objects. The definition of the corresponding MSF of a DRF can be derived syntactically from the definition of the DRF. This MSF computes the set of memory units accessed when the DRF retrieves an abstract value. This memory unit set is called the memory scope of the abstract value. Finally, the proof rule of assignment statements in Hoare's logic is modified to deal with pointers. The basic idea is that a virtual ...
Comment: 30 pages, with two non-trival examples in the appendix
The expected features of diluted magnetic semiconductors still remain in controversial issue, concerning whether or not s, p-d (f) exchange interactions indeed modify the host semiconductor band structure. To solve this doubt, a new scheme for measuring magneto-optical (MO) effect is developed, called magnetic photoresistance circular dichroism (PR-MCD), which detects the differential photoresistance of materials between two circularly polarized excitations. That allows us to detect the MO effect induced only by interband transitions, and provide unambiguous evidence that the host semiconductor band structure is indeed modified by the strong exchange interactions. Our PR-MCD spectra also disclose intrigue features which may come from strong coupling correlation effect at very high manganese concentration limit.
We present the fascinating magnetic properties in homogenous noble-metal-free and rare-earth-free L10-Mn1.5Ga epitaxial films on GaAs (001), including ultrahigh perpendicular coercivity remarkably tunable from 8.1 to 42.8 kOe, giant perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy with a maximum of 22.9 Merg/cc, easily controllable magnetization from 27.3 to 270.5 emu/cc, excellent squareness exceeding 0.94 and large magnetic energy product up to 2.6 MGOe. These magnificent room-temperature magnetic characteristics make our L10-Mn1.5Ga films multifunctional as outstanding and cost-effective alternative for not only perpendicular magnetic recording bits with areal density over 30 Tb inch-2 and thermal stability over 60 years, but variety of novel devices with high magnetic-noise immunity and thermal stability like spin-torque MRAMs and osc...
Wound healing is a multi-phased pathophysiological process requiring chemoattractant receptor-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the lesion. Two G protein-coupled formylpeptide receptors Fpr1 and Fpr2 mediate rapid neutrophil infiltration in the liver of Listeria-infected mice by sensing pathogen-derived chemotactic ligands. These receptors also recognize host-derived chemotactic peptides in inflammation and injury. Here we report the capacity of Fprs to promote the healing of sterile skin wound in mice by initiating neutrophil infiltration. We found that in normal miceneutrophils rapidly infiltrated the dermis in the wound before the production of neutrophil-specific chemokines by the injured tissue. In contrast, rapid neutrophil infiltration was markedly reduced with delayed wound closure in mice deficient in both Fprs. In ad...
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (>= 95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight newly discovered signals yielding association with P < 5 × 10(-6) in nine independent data sets (2,818 cases and 4,083 controls), we observed two loci that yielded genome-wide significant combined P values near OLFM4 at 13q14 (rs9568856; P = 1.82 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.22) and within HOXB5 at 17q21 (rs9299; P = 3.54 × 10(-9); OR = 1.14). Both loci continued to show ...
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