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Factor Inhibiting HIF-1[alpha] (FIH) is an asparaginyl hydroxylase. Hydroxylation of HIF-[alpha] proteins by FIH blocks association of HIFs with the transcriptional co- activators CBP/p300, thus inhibiting transcriptional activation. We have created mice with a null mutation in the FIH gene, and found that it has little or no discernable role in mice in altering classical aspects of HIF function, e.g., angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, or development. Rather, it is an essential regulator of metabolism: mice lacking FIH exhibit reduced body weight, elevated metabolic rate, hyperventilation, improved glucose and lipid homeostasis, and are resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis. Neuron -specific loss of FIH phenocopied some of the major metabolic phenotypes of the global null animals: those mice have reduced body...
In the research described, we developed methods and protocols for high-spatial resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of cortical activity in the brains of anesthetized non-human primates with sub-millimeter spatial specificity. These methods have been used to study the neural architecture of somatosensory areas in squirrel monkeys using BOLD fMRI at 9.4T. The stability and reproducibility of the fMRI data have been investigated and evaluated within and between different animals. We have shown how these high-resolution fMRI techniques may be combined with invasive electrophysiology and optical imaging methodologies to assess brain function more comprehensively. In addition to positive BOLD signals elicited by vibrotactile stimuli, negative BOLD responses were found adjacent to positive BOLD responses in area 3b. The de...
Dealing with municipal solid waste has become a problematic issue in the United Kingdom (UK). With actions to mitigate the potentially adverse impacts of climate change debate and space for, and costs of, landfill becoming critical, a landfilldominated strategy is no longer acceptable. In this context, the attitudes and behaviour of young adults, particularly university students, who often have little experience of taking responsibility for waste management activities, have not been studied in great detail. Since the 1960s, the UK higher education system has expanded six fold to >2.4 million students. The overall production of waste at Higher Education institutions (HEIs) is therefore very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage...
Comment: This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to suspection to the last inequalities on Page 7. However, it turns out to be right
We establish the optimized grey model with logarithm new development coefficient by screening according to the latest statistical data during 2007 in Jiangsu Province. Empirical analysis and prediction research on rural gross social output value in Jiangsu Province from the year 2008 to 2012 are carried out. Result shows that the rural gross social output value in Jiangsu Province in 2008 reached 6 169.697 billion yuan, and will be 9 511.017 billion yuan at the end of 2010, which is about 6.690 times of that in the year 2000. Target of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan†is expected to be realized smoothly.
Production of power in space for terrestrial use is of great interest in view of the rapidly rising power demand and its environmental impacts. Space also offers a very low temperature, making it a perfect heat sink for power plants, thus offering much higher efficiencies. This paper focuses on the evaluation and analysis of thermal Brayton, Ericsson and Rankine power cycles operating at space conditions on several appropriate working fluids. 1. Under the examined conditions, the thermal efficiency of Brayton cycles reaches 63%, Ericsson 74%, and Rankine 85%. These efficiencies are significantly higher than those for the computed or real terrestrial cycles: by up to 45% for the Brayton, and 17% for the Ericsson; remarkably 44% for the Rankine cycle even when compared with the best terrestrial combined cycles. From the considered workin...
The synthesis of Mg-doped ZnO nanocrystals was employed as a model system to quantitatively study the chemical kinetics of the precursor conversion reactions at synthetic conditions and the correlations with the formation of doped nanocrystals. An accurate method using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was developed to explore the alcoholysis reactions of the cationic precursors. Our study showed that three independent factors, molar ratio of dopant precursor, reaction temperature and coordination ligands of cationic precursors influenced the relative reactivity of magnesium to zinc precursor, and in turn the formation of Mg-doped ZnO nanocrystals with defined shapes and properties. This understanding underpins the advancement of the syntheses of doped nanocrystals and should be useful for future rational design of new synthetic ...
Hyaluronidases (HAases), particularly leech HAases, have attracted intense attention due to their broad applications in medical treatments and great potential for the enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligosaccharides. However, little is known about this third interesting family of HAases. Here, we applied the random amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach to identify the first leech HAase-encoding gene. By combining protein engineering and high-density culture, we achieved high-level production (8.42 × 105 U ml−1) in the yeast Pichia pastoris secretory expression system. Compared with the commercial bovine testicular HAase, the recombinant leech HAase exhibited superior enzymatic properties. Furthermore, analysis of the hydrolytic process suggested that this novel enzyme adopts a nonprocessive endolyt...
In our previous study, protein-enriched fraction (PEF) that was isolated from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), showed excellent hepatoprotective activity as well as the potential for clinical application in therapy for liver diseases. In this study, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and free radical scavenging activities of PEF were evaluated. The antiviral results demonstrated that PEF inhibited the infection of avian influenza virus H9N2 and had a virucidal effect against the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of the alfalfa looper, Autographa californica Speyer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in vitro. The mortality of silkworm larve in a PEF treatment group decreased significantly compared with a negative control. PEF showed excellent scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion ra...
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