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Comment: 7 pages, 2 eps figures. Some comments and references added. Miss types are fixed. Journal-ref is added
Genetic contributions of nine historically important ancestors and allelic diversity in the Japanese Thoroughbred population were examined by applying the gene dropping simulation to the foals produced from 1978 to 2005. Full pedigree records traced to ancestors (base animals) born around 1890 were used for the simulation. Alleles originated from some of the historically important ancestors were found to be at risk of future extinction, although their genetic contributions to the foal population have increased during the last three decades. The proportion of surviving alleles to the total alleles assigned to the base animals was 8.0% in the foal population in 2005, suggesting that a large part of genetic variability contained in the base animals is extinct in the current population.
To investigate the breeding structure in the Japanese Thoroughbred population, we applied a demographic analysis to the populations of foals produced from 1978 to 2005. The migration rate estimated from the proportion of foals produced by imported breeding horses was around 40% over the investigated period. After early 1990s, the migration rate through stallions imported from USA sharply increased. The average generation interval was within range of 10.5–11.5 years. The longer generation interval of Thoroughbred was considered to be a reflection of the fact that Thoroughbred horses begin breeding only after completing their performance in races. After the peak of 729 in 1993, the number of sires of foals progressively declined to 358 in 2005. Although the coefficient of variation of the progeny number of sires was within range of 1.0–1...
Natriuretic peptides (NPs), which consist of atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP, respectively), are characterized as cardiac or vascular hormones that elicit their biological effects by activation of the cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) pathway. We recently reported that adenoviral gene transfer of CNP into rabbit blood vessels not only suppressed neointimal formation but also accelerated reendothelialization, a required step for endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and antithrombogenicity. Accordingly, we investigated the therapeutic potential of the NPs/cGMP/cGK pathway for vascular regeneration. In transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress BNP in response to hindlimb ischemia, neovascularization with appropriate mural cell coating was accelerated without edema or bleeding, and impaired angiogenesis...
The purpose of the present study was to report cases of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI)-naïve patients carrying a mutation associated with acquired resistance to the drug. Gene alterations in 77 lung carcinoma patients were analyzed by collecting and studying curette lavage fluid at the time of diagnosis. PCRs were performed to amplify mutation hotspot regions in EGFR genes. The PCR products were direct-sequenced and the mutations confirmed by resequencing using different primers. Case 1 was a 78-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with stage IB lung adenocarcinoma who was found to have two EGFR mutations, G719S and L747S. Case 2 was a 73-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with stage IV squamous cell lung carcinoma and bone metastasis who had the EGFR mutation, L747S. Case 3 was an 82-year-old Japanese ...
The origin and developmental mechanisms underlying coronary vessels are not fully elucidated. Here we show that myocardium-derived angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is essential for coronary vein formation in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte-specific Ang1 deletion results in defective formation of the subepicardial coronary veins, but had no significant effect on the formation of intramyocardial coronary arteries. The endothelial cells (ECs) of the sinus venosus (SV) are heterogeneous population, composed of APJ-positive and APJ-negative ECs. Among these, the APJ-negative ECs migrate from the SV into the atrial and ventricular myocardium in Ang1-dependent manner. In addition, Ang1 may positively regulate venous differentiation of the subepicardial APJ-negative ECs in the heart. Consistently, in vitro experiments show that Ang1 indeed promotes v...
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