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Following a group of young adults aged 25–34 living with their parents in the American Housing Survey (AHS) data from 1985 through 1995, this paper investigates the effect of overcrowding and neighborhood satisfaction on household formation after controlling for local rental levels and their changes over time. Most of these except for local rent levels have not been tested before in models and hence this study enriches the knowledge on household formation and its consequent potential demand for rental and ownership housing units.
Comment: Expanded version, to appear in Phys. Rev. B
We investigate physical properties that can be used to distinguish the valley degree of freedom in systems where inversion symmetry is broken, using graphene systems as examples. We show that the pseudospin associated with the valley index of carriers has an intrinsic magnetic moment, in close analogy with the Bohr magneton for the electron spin. There is also a valley dependent Berry phase effect that can result in a valley contrasting Hall transport, with carriers in different valleys turning into opposite directions transverse to an in-plane electric field. These effects can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by magnetic and electric means, forming the basis for the so-called valley-tronics applications.
Comment: 48 pages, 16 figures, submitted to RMP
Comment: Minor revision. Journal info update
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