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This paper presents the top 10 data mining algorithms identified by the IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) in December 2006: C4.5, k-Means, SVM, Apriori, EM, PageRank, AdaBoost, kNN, Naive Bayes, and CART. These top 10 algorithms are among the most influential data mining algorithms in the research community. With each algorithm, we provide a description of the algorithm, discuss the impact of the algorithm, and review current and further research on the algorithm. These 10 algorithms cover classification, clustering, statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, which are all among the most important topics in data mining research and development.
Given a set of sparsely distributed sensors in the euclidean plane, a mobile robot is required to visit all sensors to download the data and finally return to its base. The effective range of each sensor is specified by a disk, and the robot must at least reach the boundary to start communication. The primary goal of optimization in this scenario is to minimize the traveling distance by the robot. This problem can be regarded as a special case of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighborhoods (TSPN), which is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present a novel TSPN algorithm for this class of TSPN, which can yield significantly improved results compared to the latest approximation algorithm.
The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood (ML) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. In particular, the EM algorithm simplifies considerably the problem of fitting finite mixture models by ML, where mixture models are used to model heterogeneity in cluster analysis and pattern recognition contexts. The EM algorithm has a number of appealing properties, including its numerical stability, simplicity of implementation, and reliable global convergence. There are also extensions of the EM algorithm to tackle complex problems in various data mining applications. It is, however, highly desirable if its simplicity and stability can be preserved.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) curve number (CN) method for estimating near real-time runoff for naturalized flow, using high resolution radar rainfall data for watersheds in various agro-climatic regions of Texas. The CN method is an empirical method for calculating surface runoff which has been tested on various systems over a period of several years. Many of the findings of previous studies indicate the need to develop variations of this method to account for regional and seasonal changes in weather patterns and land cover that might affect runoff. This study seeks to address these issues, as well as the inherent spatial variability of rainfall, in order to develop a means of predicting runoff in near real-time for water resource management. In the past, ...
The objective of this study was to develop near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibration equations from bamboo and fecal samples to predict diet composition and the physiological status of giant pandas. Discrimination between branch, culm, and leaf parts of bamboo resulted in an Rsquare (R2) of 0.88. The calibration equation for discriminating between 4 species of bamboo had an R2 of 0.47. Calibration equations were created for all bamboo species combined to determine the ability of NIRS to predict the nutrient constituents of CP, NDF, ADF, DM, and OM. No R2 was lower than 0.96, with the exception of DM at 0.63, which was consistently difficult to accurately predict due to variation in factors relating to difference in location of lab work (humidity, shipping, methods, etc.). Giant panda diets vary between seasons from eati...
Recent developments in satellite industry gaining strong attention are so called nanosatellites. These small satellites, with sizes of about a milk carton, are easy to build and much more adordable, promising great advantages for future space missions. Up until today no reliable mid-resolution Earth observation instrument has been build that can be operated on such a small, low cost satellite. In light of these events this years Design Synthesis Exercise group 9 developed such a camera system which is called the Advanced Nano Telescope (ANT) providing a novel instrument that can be carried as payload by nanosatellites. The novelty lies in the applied principles of miniaturization and intelligent distribution in order to compete with a single large scale instrument. The strength of the instrument developed lies in the fact that it can ...
A wedge indentation test has been carried out, in which an ultrasonic vibration was superimposed at a frequency of 20 kHz to investigate the effects of ultrasonic vibration on the indentation mechanics of Plasticine. A finite element simulation was employed as a basis for interpreting the experimental data. The model incorporated material and geometric non-linearity and the slide line method for modelling contact problems.
The finite element results show that stress superposition only accounts for part of the load reduction measured under superimposed ultrasonic vibration, and that there are no temperature changes during the process. Consequently, the reduction in indentation load may be attributed to a combination of stress superposition and friction reduction.
This paper describes the modelling of the indentation of an elasto-viscoplastic material. The finite element code ABAQUS was used to study the bulk mechanical, thermal and interface frictional characteristics for rigid wedge indenters. A series of simulations has been performed at a constant velocity to prescribed depths of penetration for a range of wedge surface temperatures and semi-included angles. Selected experimental data are provided as a basis for validating the numerical simulation. In the simulations, the constitutive behaviour of the model material Plasticine is treated as non-linear elasto-viscoplastic, in which the stress scales linearly with the elastic strain and non-linearly with the plastic strain rate. The results demonstrate that the FE simulations agree well with the experimental data of displacement, strain and st...
Listed as federally-endangered in 1990, the Lower Keys marsh rabbit (LKMR, Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) exists as a metapopulation in patches of wetland habitat in Florida’s Lower Keys. This study sought to address 2 priority actions identified by the LKMR Recovery Team: (1) monitoring of populations and (2) reintroduction. Monitoring the distribution and status of LKMR populations is critical for targeting future management actions. Informal transects for rabbit fecal pellets were used to survey habitat patches documented in1988–1995 surveys and to identify additional patches of occupied and potential habitat. Next, a buffer was created around patches to help managers account for uncertainty in rabbit movements and to identify groups of patches that might function as local populations. Surveys included 228 patches of occupied and po...
With an estimated 400 million domestic cats worldwide, free-roaming cats issues are of global importance due to animal welfare and public health concerns, as well as impacts on native wildlife through predation, competition and disease transmission. Though these impacts have been well documented, no research has evaluated the ecology and population dynamics of unmanaged, free-roaming cat populations using radio-telemetry. My objectives were to (1) compare population demographics (survival, fecundity and annual ranges/movements) among sex and ownership classifications (feral, semi-feral, and owned), (2) evaluate mark-resight and distance sampling for estimating cat abundances in urban areas, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with euthanasia and trap/treat/neuter/release (TTNR) programs for controlling urban cat pop...
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