Type

Database

Creator

Date

Thumbnail

Search results

38 records were found.

Pleurobranchaea maculata (grey-side gilled sea slug) was discovered to contain the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) in 2009 after a spate of dog poisoning cases on the beaches of Auckland, New Zealand. One of the great mysteries of TTX is the lack of conclusive evidence about its ultimate origin. Possible sources postulated have included both endogenous and exogenous. Additionally, within a species both toxic and non-toxic strains exist. For example, in New Zealand, P. maculate from the North Island are toxic, whereas P. maculata from the South Island are not. The overarching hypothesis of this Master???s project is that TTX has a dietary origin in P. maculata and that they will preferentially feed on TTX-containing food. This Master???s thesis aimed to test this hypothesis through three distinct aims: (1) To develop a non-lethal biopsy m...
RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.
Anabaena planktonica is a harmful, bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium, which has arrived recently in New Zealand. In the short time since its incursion (<10 yr), A. planktonica has spread rapidly throughout lakes in the North Island. To date, the identification and enumeration of A. planktonica has been undertaken using light microscopy. There is an urgent demand for a highly sensitive and specific quantitative detection method that can be combined with a high sample processing capability in order to increase sampling frequency. In this study, we sequenced 36 cyanobacterial 16S rRNA genes (partial), complete intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS), and 23S rRNA genes (partial) of fresh-water cyanobacteria found in New Zealand. The sequences were used to develop an A. Planktonica specific TaqMan QPCR assay targeting the long ITS1-L an...
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX ...
Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Sparse historic phytoplankton records often result in uncertainty as to whether bloom-forming species have always been present and are proliferating in response to eutrophication or climate change, or if there has been a succession of new arrivals through recent history. This study evaluated the relative efficacies of germination experiments and automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) assays in identifying cyanobacteria in a sediment core and thus reconstructing the historical composition of cyanobacterial communities. A core (360 mm in depth) was taken in the central, undisturbed basin of Lake Okaro, New Zealand, a lake with a rapid advance of eutrophication and increasing cyanobacteria populations. The core incorporated a tephra from an 1886 volcanic erupt...
Introduction: Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyanotoxins which pose a serious health threat when present in aquatic systems. Quantitative analysis of MCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight (MALDI–TOF) mass spectrometry has potential for the processing of large numbers of samples quickly and economically. The existing method uses an expensive internal standard and protocols that are incompatible with automated sample preparation and data acquisition. Objective: To produce a MALDI–TOF sample preparation technique for the quantitation of MCs that not only maintains reproducibility and sensitivity, but is also compatible with an automated work-flow. Methodology: Seven different MALDI–TOF sample preparations were assessed for signal reproducibility (coefficient of variation) and sensitivity (method detection li...
In lakes, benthic micro-algae and cyanobacteria (periphyton) can contribute significantly to total primary productivity and provide important food sources for benthic invertebrates. Despite recognition of their importance, few studies have explored the diversity of the algal and cyanobacterial composition of periphyton mats in temperate lakes. In this study, we sampled periphyton from three New Zealand lakes: Tikitapu (oligotrophic), Ōkāreka (mesotrophic) and Rotoiti (eutrophic). Statistical analysis of morphological data showed a clear delineation in community structure among lakes and highlighted the importance of cyanobacteria. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to investigate cyanobacterial diversity. Despite the close geographic proximity of the lakes, cyanobacterial speci...
The Pyramid Trough (Lat 78°S) has recently gained protection under the Antarctic Treaty system, owing to its wetland values. Here, we describe the microbial diversity of this system, with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and evaluate environment–biota relationships. Geochemistry separates ponds along hydrological gradients receiving recent inflows of dilute meltwater, from a second group that is rarely inundated and where chemistry is dominated by evaporation. Cyanobacteria-based microbial mats dominated the biota throughout. Mats were characterized by light-microscopy, pigment analysis, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. A total of 17 morphotypes and 21 ribotypes were identified, mostly Oscillatoriales and several taxa that are usually rare in continental Antarctica, including Chroococcales and...
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in prevalence. Microcystins are the most commonly produced cyanotoxin. Despite extensive research the variables regulating microcystin production remain unclear. Using a RT-QPCR assay that allowed the precise measurement of mcyE transcriptional gene expression and an ELISA that enabled small changes in total microcystin concentrations to be monitored, we demonstrate for the first time that microcystin production is not always constitutive and that significant up- and downregulation in microcystin synthesis can occur on time scales of 2–6 h. Samples were collected over 3 days from a small eutrophic lake during a dense microcystin-producing Microcystis bloom. McyE gene transcripts were detected in only four out of 14 samples. Vicissitudes in both microcystin quotas and extracellular microcystin ...
The relationship between heterocyte frequency, water temperature, nutrient concentrations and densities of Anabaena planktonica was examined in monomictic, eutrophic Lower Karori Reservoir (max. depth 21 m, area 0.034 km2), Wellington, New Zealand. Anabaena planktonica formed blooms and strongly dominated the phytoplankton assemblage during summer. The development of blooms of A. planktonica was associated with the set-up of stratification and increases in surface water temperature, with the peak of the bloom almost synchronous with maximum water temperature. The annual peak in heterocyte frequency preceded the bloom and occurred during a period of intensifying stratification. At this time, there were sustained low concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: nitrate-N + ammonium-N) and the lowest ratios of DIN to soluble react...
Want to know more?If you want to know more about this cutting edge product, or schedule a demonstration on your own organisation, please feel free to contact us or read the available documentation at http://www.keep.pt/produtos/retrievo/?lang=en